Materials in use or under consideration for many applications in new and emerging technologies are often available only in small quantities and many times in the form of thin films, wafers and sheets. Such size and form limitations present a number of challenges to those wishing to evaluate thermal performance characteristics. This has resulted in a need to develop totally new transient or modify current transient and steady state techniques significantly. Various new or modified techniques to measure thermophysical properties are described. Illustrations of, applications to and results on semiconductors, superconductors, diamonds, polymers, composites and layered structures will be discussed.