The ancient technology involved in the application of pigments and paintings used by potters to decorate ceramic vessels is one of the most interesting aspects of ceramic technology in the past. Potters have used in the past several sources (e.g. inorganic and organic) to decorate the vessels in order to achieve the colours desired and fix them in the vessels throughout the firing process. In this paper, we present the results of a technological and chemical characterisation of pigments and paintings through the application of Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to ceramics from the Middle Period (ca. 650 AD – 900 AD) at Northwestern Argentine region.