Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Synthesis of Hydraulically Active Calcium Silicates Produced by Combustion Methods

  • Juan C. Restrepo (a1), Andrés Chavarriaga (a2), Oscar J. Restrepo (a2) and Jorge I. Tobón (a2)

Abstract

Portland cement is synthesized from a mixture of limestone and clay at high temperature (1450 °C) via a conventional process (solid-phase synthesis), in which partial fusion of raw materials and the formation of clinker nodules are produced. The clinker is mixed with a small percentage of gypsum and ground together to make the cement. This synthesis process holds the cement industry accountable for 5–8% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The production of a ton of cement emits between 0.62 and 0.97 tons of CO2 into the atmosphere, depending on the processing plant. Furthermore, the use of fossil fuels in cement production is another important factor in the environmental impact of this industry. The production of 1 ton of clinker consumes approximately 5.86 GJ per tons of clinker produced in wet processes and 3.35 GJ per tons of clinker produced by dry process. Some researches have reported the possibility to obtain silicate and aluminate cements by alternative synthesis methods, which optimize both time and temperature, such as Pechini method, sol-gel method and microwave assisted method. The combustion methods, another alternative, are chemical redox processes in which the use of chemical precursors and organic fuels at high temperature generate a self-sustaining fastwave. The said wave is characterized by the fact that once the initial exothermic reaction starts, it generates a reaction wave (0.1–10 cm/s) at high temperature (1000–3000 °C) that propagates, in a self-sustaining way, through the heterogeneous mixture which leads to the formation of the solid material. For this reason, and the irreplaceable role of cement in the construction industry, this paper shows the advances in the production of silicates, similar to those found in the Portland cement, by combustion synthesis method.

This paper shows the production of calcium silicates similar to the silicates of Portland cement, by combustion synthesis. Thermal analysis and XRD techniques were used to compare the syhthetized silicates with alite and belite of Portland cement.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Habert, G., Billard, , Rossi, P., Chen, C. and Roussel, N. Cement production technology improvement compared to factor 4 objectives. Cem. and Conc. Research. 2010.
2. Chrysafi, R., Perraki, Th. and Kakali, G. Sol–gel preparation of 2CaO.SiO2. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. Vol. 27, pag. 17071710. 2007.
3. Scrivener, K. and Kirkpatrick, R. Innovation in use and research on cementitious material. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. 38, pag. 128136. 2008.
5. Damineli, B., Kemeid, L., Aguiar, F.P. and John, Vanderley. Measuring the eco-efficiency of cement use□ S. Department of Construction Engineering. Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Cement and Concrete Research, 2010.
6. Taylor, H.F.W. Cement Chemistry. 2nd ed. Thomas Telford. 1997.
7. Dunstetter, F., Noirfontaine, M.N. and Courtial, M. Polymorphism of tricalcium silicate, the mayor compound of portland cement clinker. Cem. and Conc. Research. 2006.
8. Hong, S-H. and Young, J.F. Hydration Kinetics and Phase Stability of Dicalcium Silicate Synthesized by the Pechini Process. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. Vol. 82, pag. 1681–86. 1999.
9. Gaki, A., Chrysafi, R. and Kakali, G. Chemical synthesis of hydraulic calcium aluminate compounds using the Pechini technique. Journal of European Ceramic Society. 2007.
10. Roy, D.M. and Oyefesobi, S.O. Preparation of very reactive Ca2SiO4 powder. Journal American Ceramic Society. Vol. 60, pag. 178180. 1977.
11. Stephan, D. andy Wilhelm, P. Synthesis of Pure Cementitious Phases by Sol-Gel Process as Precursor. Garching bei München, Anorganisch-chemisches. 2004.
12. Page, C.H., Thombare, C.H., Kamat, R.D. and Chatterjee, A.K. Development of Sol–Gel technology for cement manufacture. Ceram. Trans. Vol. 16, pag. 643660. 1991.
13. Li, H., Agrawal, D.K., Cheng, J. and Silsbee, M.R. Formation and hidration of C3S prepard by microwave and conventional sintering. Cement and Concrete Research. 1999.
14. Li, H., Agrawal, D.K., Cheng, J. and Silsbee, M.R. Microwave sintering of sulphoaluminate cement with utility wastes. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. 31, 2001.
15. Long, S., Yan, C. and Dong, J. Microwave-promoted burning of Portland cement clinker. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. 32, pag. 1721. 2002.
16. Zapata, A. and Bosch, P. Low temperature preparation of belitic cement clinker. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. Vol. 29, pag. 18791885. 2009.
17. Huang, X-H. and Chang, J. Low-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline b-dicalcium silicate with high specific surface area. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2007.
18. Fumo, D.A., Morelli, M.R. and Segadães, A.M. Combustion Synthesis Of Calcium Aluminates. Materials Research Bulletin. Vol. 31, pag. 12431255.1996.
19. Gartner, E. Industrial Interesting Approaches to low CO2 Cements. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. 34, pag. 14891498. 2004.
20. Van den Heede, P. and De Belie, N. Environmental impact and life cycle assessment of traditional and ‘green’ concretes: Literature review and theoretical calculations. Cement & Concrete Composites. Vol. 34, pag. 431442. 2012.
21. Mehta, P.K. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Concrete-Concrete can be durable and environmentally friendly. Concrete - International 5. 2001.
22. Roskovic, R. and Bjegovic, D. Role of mineral additions in reducing CO2 emission. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. 35, pag. 974978. 2005.
23. Wesselsky, A. andy Jensen, O.M. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases. Cement and Concrete Research. Vol. 39, pag. 973980. 2009.
24. Raab, B. & Pöllmann, H. Synthesis of pure cement phases by different synthesis methods. International Conference on Calcium Aluminate Cements. France. 2008.
25. Mossino, P. Review:□ Some aspects in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Ceramics International. Vol. 30, pag. 311332. 2004.
26. Brinker, C.F. and Scherrer, G.W. The Physics and Chemistry of Sol-Gel Processing. Academic press, inc. 1990.
27. Stoyanova, T. Síntesis no Convencional y Caracterización de Pigmentos Cerámicos Basados en Cromo. Tesis Doctoral 2009, Universitat Jaume I de Castellon, España.
28. Kakihana, M. Sol-Gel Preparation of High Temperature Superconducting Oxides. J. Sol-Gel Sci.Tecnol. Vol. 6, pag. 755. 1996.
29. Merzhanov, A.G. and Borovinskaya, I.P. Patent: Self-propagated high-temperature synthesis of refractory inorganic compounds", Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 1972.
30. Mukasyan, A.S., Epstein, P. and Dinka, P. Solution combustion synthesis of nanomaterials. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. Vol. 31. 2007.
31. Montoya, J.F., Chavarriaga, E.A., Restrepo, J.C. y Restrepo, O.J. Pigmentos Cerámicos con Estructura Espinela ZnCr2O2 y CuCr2O4 sintetizados por la ruta de reacción en micelas normales. Revista Colombiana de Materiales. Nro. 5, pag. 278283. 2014.
32. Jaramillo, L., Montoya, J.F., Chavarriaga, E.A., Restrepo, J.C. y Restrepo, O.J. Fabricación del Pigmento Cerámico ZnCr2O4 tipo Espinela por Métodos no Convencionales. Revista Colombiana de Materiales. Nro. 5, pag. 284289. 2014.
33. Varma, A., Mukasyan, A.S., Deshpande, K., Pranda, P. and Erii, P. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 800 113124. 2003.
34. Pederson, L.R. US patent number: 5,114,702. 1992.
35. Chick, L.A., Pederson, L.R., Maupin, G.D., Bates, J.L., Thomás, L.E and Exarhos, G.J. Materials Letters. Vol. 10, pag. 6. 1990.
36. Cruz, D. and Bulbulian, S. Synthesis of lithium silicate tritium breeder □powders by modified combustion method. J. Nucl. Mater. Vol. 4, pag. 262□265. 2003.
37. Burgos-Montes, O., Moreno, R., Colomer, M.T. and Fariñas, J.C. Synthesis of mullite powders through a suspension combustion process. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2006.
38. Mendoza, O and Tobón, J.I. An alternative thermal method for identification of pozzolanic activity in Ca(OH)2/pozzolan pastes. J Therm Anal Calorim. DOI 10.1007/s10973-013-2973-y. 2013.

Keywords

Synthesis of Hydraulically Active Calcium Silicates Produced by Combustion Methods

  • Juan C. Restrepo (a1), Andrés Chavarriaga (a2), Oscar J. Restrepo (a2) and Jorge I. Tobón (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed