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Surface Characterization by Reflection Electron Microscopy (REM)

  • Tung Hsu (a1) and J. M. Cowley (a1)

Abstract

Reflection electron microscopy (REM) utilizes the Bragg reflected high energy electrons to form the image of a crystal surface. Images of dislocations, atomic steps, reconstructions of surface layers of atoms and adatoms, stacking faults and twinning, superlattices, etc., have been successfully observed on a wide variety of specimens. Contrast is mainly due to diffraction and phase, which distiguished REM as a unique method for high spacial resolution and high sensitivity imaging of the surfaces of bulk specimens. REM can be effectively performed under UHV as well as under the moderate vacuum of an ordinary commercial electron microscope.

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