Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Research on the Corrosion of Bronze Weapons from the Pits of the Terracotta Warriors

  • Xiaomei Zhang (a1), Sixun Yuan (a1), Yongqi Wu (a2), Baofa Guo (a2) and Jing Han (a1)...

Abstract

Large amounts of bronze weapons have been unearthed from the pits of the Terracotta Warriors. Though they are of the same period, their condition is quite different; some are slightly corroded; some have almost no corrosion with a gray-black or green-gray surface; some are badly corroded. ICP, XRD, SEM, EDX, XRF, AES and Metalloscope were employed on seven bronze weapons to investigate their composition, structure and differences between the surfaces and bulk metals. Results showed that all these bronze weapons are high-tin bronzes. The three bronze swords contain a higher tin content than the others and have undergone heat treatment, which gives them the necessary tenacity of weapons. The surface layers of the weapons are rich in tin in various degrees because of selective corrosion and the migration of copper ions during corrosion. Some objects are more corrosion-resistant by a quenching treatment and the formation of compact tin oxides.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Zhang, T., The Unearthed Arms out of the Warrior Figure Pits of the Qin Dynasty, The Silk road, 7 (1), 2024 (1999, In Chinese).
2. Han, R., Ma, Z., Wang, Z., and Ke, J., Research on the oxidation layer of arrowhead unearthed from the Pits of the Terracotta Warriors, Studies in the history of natural science; 2(4), 295302 (1983, In Chinese).
3. Ma, Z., Black patina on ancient bronze mirrors resulted from Polyphenol, Archaeology, 36(11), 103105 (1995, In Chinese).
4. Chase, W. T.; Ziebold, T. O., Ternary Representations of Ancient Chinese Bronze Compositions. Archaeological Chemistry—II, Advances in Chemistry, Vol. 171, American chemical society, Washington, DC, 302304 (1978).
5. Tian, C., Brilliant Scintific Achievement of Chinese Ancient Bronze Casting by Using Modern Analysis, Journal of Sichuan University (Engineering Science Edition), 12(Z1):109124 (1980, In Chinese).
6. Han, R., and Bunker, E. C., The study of ancient Ordos bronze with tin-enriched surface in China, Cultural Relics, 30(9), 8096 (1993, In Chinese).
7. Chase, W. T., and Franklin, U. M., Early Chinese Black Mirror and Pattern-Etched Weapons, ARS ORIENTALS, 11, 215258 (1979).
8. Dean, J. A., Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry, Science press, Beijing, 6(7)-6(9) (In Chinese1991).
9. Zhu, R., Metsal corrosion, Metallurgical Industry Press, Beijing, 289300 (In Chinese1989).

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed