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Process-Monitoring Via Impedance Spectroscopy

  • Martin A. Seitz (a1), Richard W. Hirthe (a1) and Charles J. Koehler (a1)

Abstract

The improvement of process yields and efficiency are often dependent upon the availability of sensors that allow real-time in-process control. The sensitivity of impedance techniques to physical, chemical, and microstructural features of a material system offers significant potential in developing real-time sensors. Two examples of how impedance techniques can be used to follow changes in materials throughout out a process are discussed. The first of these involves monitoring the processibility and viability of solder pastes used in surface mount technology. The second example deals with monitoring the state of an ion exchange resin bed as used in water softeners.

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1. Polcyznski, M., Seitz, M. A., and Hirthe, R., “A New Technique for Monitoring Solder Paste Characteristics For Process Control”, Surface Mount Technology, 4, No. 10, p. 5460, (October, 1990).
2. Polcyznski, M., Seitz, M. A., and Hirthe, R., “Measuring Solder Paste Metal Content Using Alternating Current Electrical Impedance Techniques”; Proc. of the 1990 International Symposium on Microelectronics, Chicago, Ill., Oct 15–17, p. 174182 (1990).
3. Polcyznski, M., Seitz, M. A., Hirthe, R., and Hoeller, T., “Use of AC Electrical Impedance Techniques for Monitoring Microstructural Changes in Electronic Materials”;, Proc. of the 1991 Internatl. Sym. on Microelectronics, Orlando, FL, Oct. 21–23, p. 431435, (1991).
4. Seitz, M. A., Hirthe, R. W., Amin, M., and Polcyznski, M., “Monitoring Solder Paste Properties Using Impedance Spectroscopy”;, Proc. of the 1992 International Symposium on Microelectronics, San Francisco, CA, Oct. 19–2 1, p. 503509, (1992)
5. Seitz, M. A., Hirthe, R., Amin, M., and Polcyznski, M., “Low Frequency Electrical Behavior of Solder Paste”;, Proc. of the 16th Annual Electronic Manufacturing Seminar, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA. (1993).
6. Boukamp, B. A., “A Non Linear Least Squares Fit Procedure For Analysis Of Immittance Data Of Electrochemical Systems”;, Solid State lonics, 20, p. 3144, (1986); and B. A. Boukamp, Equivalent Circuit, (EQUIVCKT.PAS), Dept. of Chemical Technology, University of Twente, Netherlands, (1988/89).
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8. Gileadi, E., Kirowa-Eisner, E., and Penciner, J., Interfacial Electrochemistry, Addison-Wesley Publishing, p. 8692, (1975).
9. Impedance Spectroscopy, edited by McDonald, J. R., John Wiley and Sons, p. 8495, (1987).
10. Seitz, M. A., Hirthe, R. W., and Frederickson, M. D., “Statistical Process Control of Solder Paste Using AC Impedance Spectroscopy”;, proc. 1995 International Symposium on Microelectronics, Los Angeles, CA., October 26, p 146153, (1995).
11. Tucci, M. A., Sutherland, G.K., “Regeneration Detector for Water Softeners,” U.S Patent No. 4320010, March 16, 1982.

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