Skip to main content Accessibility help

Porous Organosilicates for On-Chip Dielectric Applications

  • R. D. Miller (a1), R. Beyers (a1), K. R. Carter (a1), R. F. Cook (a1), M. Harbison (a1), C. J. Hawker (a1), J. L. Hedrick (a1), V. Lee (a1), E. Liniger (a1), C. Nguyen (a1), J. Remenar (a1), M. Sherwood (a1), M. Trollsås (a1), W. Volksen (a1) and D. Y. Yoon (a1)...


Porous organosilicates useful for on-chip insulator applications can be prepared by templating the vitrification of low molecular weight silsesquioxanes (SSQs) using highly branched, thermally labile macromolecules which are subsequently removed in a thermal process to generate porosity. The process involves spin coating a mixture of the matrix material and the porogen (pore generator) followed by thermal curing to initiate vitrification and decomposition of the porogen. The morphology is fixed during the formation of the nanoscopic inorganicorganic hybrid and is maintained during foaming. This process generates controllable and stable morphologies where the void volume is determined by the porogen loading level. The porous materials are thermally robust and intrinsically hydrophobic without subsequent chemical treatment. Dielectric constants of < 2.2 are easily achieved for pore volumes of only 20%, and this porosity appears to be predominately closed cell in nature. These materials display a number of thermal mechanical and electric properties consistent with the requirements for on-chip insulator applications.



Hide All
1. “The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors” 1997 Edition (Semiconductor Industry Association, San Jose, CA, 1997).
2. Tummala, R. R.; Keyes, R. W.; Grobman, W. D.; Kapur, S. in Microelectronics Packaging Handbook; Tummala, R. R., Rymaszewski, E. J., Eds.; Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, 1989; Chapter 9, p. 673 if.10.1007/978-1-4613-1069-3_9
3. Edelstein, D.; Heidenreich, J.; Goldblatt, R.; Cote, W.; Uzoh, C.; Lustig, N.; Ropar, R.; McDevitt, T.; Motsiff, W.; Simon, A.; Dukovic, J.; Wachnik, R.; Rathore, H.; Schulz, R.; Wu, L.; Luce, S.; Slattery, J. Tech. Digest IEEE International Electron Devices Mtg. 1997, 376.
4. Singer, P. Semiconductor International 1998 (June), p. 90.
5. Peters, L. Semiconductor International 1998 (September), 21(10), p. 64 and references cited therein.
6. Hedrick, J. L.; Carter, K. R.; Labadie, J. W.; Miller, R. D.; Volksen, W.; Hawker, C. J.; Yoon, D. Y.; Russell, T. P.; McGrath, J. E.; Briber, R. M. Adv. Polym. Sci. 1999, 141, 1.10.1007/3-540-49814-1_1
7. Hedrick, J. L.; Miller, R. D.; Hawker, C. J.; Carter, K. R.; Volksen, W.; Yoon, D. Y.; Trollsås, M. Adv. Mater. 1998, 10(13), 1049.10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199809)10:13<1049::AID-ADMA1049>3.0.CO;2-F
8. Remenar, J. F.; Hawker, C. J.; Hedrick, J. L.; Kim, S.-M.; Miller, R. D.; Nguyen, C.; Trollsås, M.; Yoon, D. Y. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1998, 511, 69.10.1557/PROC-511-69
9. (a) Hedrick, J. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Cha, H.-J.; Yoon, D.; Flores, V.; Harbison, M.; DiPietro, R.; Hinsberg, W.; Deline, V.; Brown, H. R.; Sherwood, M.; Paulson, E.; Miller, R. D.; Cook, R.; Liniger, E.; Simonyi, E.; Klaus, D.; Sohen, S.; Hummel, J. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1997, 443, 47.10.1557/PROC-443-47
(b) Hedrick, J. L.; Cha, H.-J.; Miller, R. D.; Yoon, D. Y.; Brown, H. R.; DiPietro, R. D.; Cook, R. F.; Hullel, J. P.; Klaus, D. P.; Liniger, E. G.; Simonyi, E. Macromolecules 1997, 30, 8512.10.1021/ma970135y
(c) Hedrick, J. L.; Hawker, C. J.; Miller, R. D.; Twieg, R.; Srinivasan, S.; Trollsås, M. Macromolecules 1997, 30, 7607.10.1021/ma970797n
10. (a) Lu, Y.; Ganguli, R.; Drewien, C. A.; Anderson, M. T.; Brinker, C. J.; Gong, W.; Guo, Y.; Soyez, H.; Dunn, B.; Huang, M. H.; Zink, J. I. Nature 1997, 389, 364.10.1038/38699
(b) Bruinsma, P. J.; Hess, N. J.; Bontha, J. R.; Liu, J.; Baskaran, S. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1997, 443, 105.10.1557/PROC-443-105
(c) Ogawa, M. A. J Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 1996, 1149.10.1039/CC9960001149
11. (a) Zhao, D.; Feng, J.; Huo, Q.; Melosh, N.; Fredrickson, G. H.; Chmelka, B. F.; Stucky, G. D. Science 1998, 279, 548.10.1126/science.279.5350.548
(b) Zhao, D.; Yang, P.; Melosh, N.; Feng, J.; Chmelka, B. F.; Stucky, G. D. Adv. Mater. 1998, 10(16), 1380.10.1002/(SICI)1521-4095(199811)10:16<1380::AID-ADMA1380>3.0.CO;2-8
(c) Zhao, D.; Huo, Q.; Feng, J.; Chmelka, B. F.; Stucky, G. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 6024.10.1021/ja974025i
12. (a) Hrubesh, L. W.; Keene, L. E.; Latorre, V. R. J. Mater. Res. 1993, 8(7), 1736.10.1557/JMR.1993.1736
(b) Husing, N.; Schubert, U. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed 1998, 37 22.10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19980202)37:1/2<22::AID-ANIE22>3.0.CO;2-I
13. (a) Smith, D. M.; Anderson, J.; Cho, C. C.; Johnston, G. P.; Jeng, S. P. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1995, 381, 261.10.1557/PROC-381-261
(b) Zielinski, E. M.; Russell, W. W.; List, R. S.; Wilson, A. M.; Jin, C.; Newton, K. J.; Lu, J, P.; Hurl, T.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cordasco, V.; Gopikanth, M.; Korthuis, V.; Lee, W.; Cerny, G.; Russell, N. M. Proc. IDE”97 1997, 936.
14. Barney, R. H.; Itoh, M.; Sakakibara, A.; Suzuki, T. Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 1409.
15. (a) Trollsås, M.; Hedrick, J. L.; Mecerreyes, D.; Dubois, Ph.; Jérôme, R.; Ihre, H.; Hult, A. Macromolecules 1997, 30, 8508.10.1021/ma970798f
(b) Trollsås, M.; Hedrick, J. L.; Mecerreyes, D.; Dubois, Ph.; Jérôme, R.; Ihre, H.; Hult, A. Macromolecules 1998, 30, 2758.
(c) Trollsås, M.; Hedrick, J. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 4644.10.1021/ja973678w
(d) Trollsås, M.; Claesson, H.; Althoff, B.; Hedrick, J. L. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed 1998, 37, 3132.10.1002/(SICI)1521-3773(19981204)37:22<3132::AID-ANIE3132>3.0.CO;2-B
16. Nguyen, C. V.; Carter, K. R.; Hawker, C. J.; Hedrick, J. L.; Jaffe, R. L.; Miller, R. D. Remenar, J. F.; Rhees, H.-W., Rice, P. M.; Toney, M. F.; Trollsås, M.; Yoon, D. Y. Chem. Mater. 1999 (in press).
17. Sanchez, M. I.; Hedrick, J. L.; Russell, T. P. J. Polym. Sci.: Part B: Polym. Phys. 1995, 33, 253.10.1002/polb.1995.090330210
18. Findersen, E.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Vigild, M. E.; Clausen, K. N., Hansen, J. B.; Bentzen, M. D.; Goff, J. P. J Appl. Phys. 1994, 76, 4636.10.1063/1.357300
19. (a) Moylan, C. R.; Best, M. E.; Ree, M. J. Polym. Sci.: Part B: Polym. Phys. 1991, 29, 87.10.1002/polb.1991.090290111
(b) Yang, D. K.; Koros, W. J.; Hopfenberg, H. B.; Stannett, V. T. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 1986, 31, 1619.10.1002/app.1986.070310608
20. (a) Cook, R. F.; Liniger, E. G. Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., “Low Dielectric Constant Materials IV”, 1998, p. 171.10.1557/PROC-511-171
(b) Simonyi, E. F.; Lee, K.-W.; Cook, R. F.; Liniger, E. G. Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., “Low Dielectric Constant Materials IV”, 1998 p. 157.10.1557/PROC-511-157
(c) Cook, R. F.; Liniger, E. G.; Klaus, D. R.; Simonyi, E. E.; Cohen, S. A. Mater. Res. Soc. Proc., “Low Dielectric Constant Materials IV”, 1998 p. 33.10.1557/PROC-511-33


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed