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Physcial characterization of ultrathin high k dielectrics

  • W. Vandervorst (a1) (a2), B. Brijs (a1), H. Bender (a1), O. T. Conard (a1), J. Petry (a1), O. Richard (a1), S. Van Elshocht (a1), A. Delabie (a1), M. Caymax (a1) and S. De Gendt...

Abstract

Targeting very thin equivalent oxides (<1 nm) requires the deposition of (very) thin dielectrica onto silicon surfaces with minimal interfacial oxide. Typically, high-k dielectric layers are deposited using ALD or MOCVD with, at present, a prime emphasis on Hf-based high-k dielectrics, either as pure HfO2, as silicate or mixed with Al2O3. In some cases nitrogen is added to improve the high-temperature stability. Depending on the deposition conditions ALD as well as MOCVD show serious deficiencies in terms of film closure and material density for ultra thin (<3 nm) films. Various surface preparation methods and deposition conditions are used to improve the film quality. Detailed studies on the film growth and its evolution requires the use of many analytical methods such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, Low Energy Ion Scattering, Time-of-flight SIMS, (spectroscopic) ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When trying to correlate the results in terms of film thickness, apparent discrepancies can be observed which relate to non-homogeneous growth and reduced material density.

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References

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1. Govoreanu, Bogdan et al., 2002 Intern. Conf. on Solid State Devices and Materials.
2. Van Elshoft, S. et al.: Proc. MRS 2002 Fall Meeting-2002, Boston, USA
3. Bender, H. et al.: proc ALTECH-2003
4. Green, M. L., et al. J. App. Phys 92, (2002) 71687174
5. Bender, H. et al.: Proceedings of IWGI, Tokyo, Japan, November 2001
6. Conard, T. et al. Proc. of the SIMS-XIII, Japan, to be publ. in Applied Surface Science

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