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The Origin of Field-induced Electron Emission from N-doped CVD Diamond Characterized by Combined XPS/UPS/FES System

  • Hisato Yamaguchi (a1), Yuki Kudo (a2), Tomoaki Masuzawa (a3), Yoshifumi Shiraki (a4), Ichitaro Saito (a5), Masato Kudo (a6), Takatoshi Yamada (a7), Yuji Takakuwa (a8) and Ken Okano (a9)...

Abstract

Electric field of less than 5 V/um is enough to extract electrons from CVD diamond, whereas field of one to two orders of magnitude higher is needed to extract electrons from metal emitter tips. Diamond has various advantages as an electron emitter in addition to the low-threshold voltage, negative electron affinity (NEA), high thermal conductivity, and high chemical stability. The difficulty in clarification of electron emission mechanism is the factor preventing diamond from being used in practical Quite a few numbers of possible mechanisms have been proposed based on conventional emission current-anode voltage (I-V) characteristics, however, difficulty remained in the determination of origin for emitting electrons. In our previous study, we have succeeded in determining the origin for lightly nitrogen (N)-doped CVD diamond by using combined x-ray photoemission spectroscopy / ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy / field emission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS/FES) system. The origin at 1.47 eV above valence band maximum (VBM) was consistent with donor level for aggregated N. The origin was at VBM for natural IIb diamond measured as a reference, indicating the emitted electrons strongly depend on the dopant In this study, the origin of emitting electrons for heavily N-doped CVD diamond was characterized by the means of combined XPS/UPS/FES. Extremely low-threshold electron emission at 0.5 V/um is still one of the lowest threshold voltages. Such a low-threshold emission may be possible if electrons are somehow injected to conduction band of diamond and emitted into vacuum through NEA surface. Hence, we strongly believe the determination of the origin for heavily N-doped CVD diamond leads to the clarification of mechanism for low-threshold electron emission from diamond. The system in which we have developed for this study consists of ultraviolet source built in an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. The diamond sample could be negatively biased up to 4kV relative to the mesh grid for FES. Individual spectroscopy of XPS was performed prior to the combined spectroscopy to determine any possible contaminants on CVD diamond. Peaks referred to C1s and O1s of diamond were observed in addition to Gold, used in a mesh grid set above the sample. Combined spectroscopy of UPS/FES was then, conducted on the CVD diamond to identify the origin of field emitted electrons. The diamond was first illuminated by He I excitation for photoemission. NEA with the typical spectra shape for diamond was observed. After confirming stable operation of individual UPS, negative voltage was applied simultaneously for field emission. Exceeding threshold voltage, a sharp peak, which can be referred to field-emitted electrons appeared in addition to typical UPS spectra. The origin of emitting electrons as well as its dependence on the applied voltage will be discussed.

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Keywords

The Origin of Field-induced Electron Emission from N-doped CVD Diamond Characterized by Combined XPS/UPS/FES System

  • Hisato Yamaguchi (a1), Yuki Kudo (a2), Tomoaki Masuzawa (a3), Yoshifumi Shiraki (a4), Ichitaro Saito (a5), Masato Kudo (a6), Takatoshi Yamada (a7), Yuji Takakuwa (a8) and Ken Okano (a9)...

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