Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Order and Disorder in Semiconductors

  • Hans J. Queisser (a1)

Abstract

The astounding success of microelectronics rests on a simple materials principle : creating a highly purified and perfected , spatially ordered semiconductor matrix , whose electrical and optical properties may be selectively adjusted by local substitutions of host atoms by dopant atoms. This unique materials utilization differs remarkably from all earlier technologies , because the controlled, almost imperceptibly small disorder by doping (rather than the ordered host ) dominates the relevant properties ! Defect control is thus a major concern for semiconductor technology. Homogeneity is an absolute necessity for this strategy, but only a few of the semiconductors can be made so homogeneous as to suppress the strong deleterious effects of inhomogeneity. Recent advances are summarized : atomic resolution of defect analyses, multiatom reactions and hope for applications,contactless measurements, gettering as well as detailed theory of simulations. The emergence of novel quantum devices, with both reduced dimensions and reduced dimensionalities heralds a paradigm change, since the quantizing small geometries exert stronger influences than defects do; nevertheless, materials perfection and interface control remain prerequisites for these structures.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Shockley, W..Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors, (van Nostrand,Princeton, 1950), still a remarkable source, see esp. Chapter 1
2. Cohen, B.G., Sol.St.Electron. 10,33 (1967),also: G.L. Pearson and J. Bardeen, Phys.Rev. 75, 865 (1949), proof of substitional position of the dominant dopants
3. Grove, A., Leistiko, O., and Sah, C.T., J.Appl.Phys. 35, 2695 (1964)
4. Lau, L., Mader, L., Mazure, C., Werner, C., and Orlowski, M., AppLPhys. A49, 671,(1989)
5. Nicolhan, Edward H. and Chatterjee, Ajay, J.Electrochem.Soc. 141, 3580 (1994)
6. Gatts, C. Duscher, G. Müllejans, H., and Rühle, M. (private commun.,to be publ. 1995)
7. Queisser, H.J., J.Phys.Soc.Jpn. 18, Suppl. Ill, 142 (1963)
8. Queisser, H.J., Finch, R.H., and Washburn, J., J.Appl.Phys. 33, 1536 (1962). This collaboration between UC Berkeley and Shockley Transistor Corp. identified the oxidation-induced stacking faults by the very first transmission electron microscopy on Si defects
9. For a review, see Queisser, H.J., in Defects in Semiconductors II. Mahajan, S. and Corbett, J.W., editors, MRS Symposia, Vol. 14,p.323 (1983)
10. Tsui, P.G.Y. et al., Paper 19.5.1 at Int.Electron Dev.Conf. San Francisco, 1995, (to be published)
11. Tsoukalas, D. and Tsamis, C., Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 971 (1995)
12. Stolk, P.A., Eaglesham, D.J., Gossmann, H.-J., and Poate, J.M., Appl.Phys. Lett. 66, 1370 (1995)
13. Delerue, C. and Lannoo, M., Mat.Sci. Forum 143147, 699 (1994)
14. Kukimoto, H., Mat.Sci.Forum 143147, 385 (1994)
15. AKennedy, T., Glaser, E.R., Murdin, B.N., Pidgeon, C.R., Prior, K.A., and Cavenett, B.C., Appl.Phys. Lett. 65, 1112 (1994)
16. Tomiya, S., Morita, E., Ukita, M., Itoh, S., Nakano, K., and Ishibashi, A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1208 (1995)
17. Lester, S.D., Ponce, F.A., Crawford, M.G., and Steigerwald, D.A., Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1249 (1995)
18. Queisser, H.J., in Proc.Int.Conf. Phys.Techn.Compensated Semicond. (Madras, 1985),Gopalam, B., editor, p.1
19. Chattopadhyay, D.C. and Queisser, H.J., Revs.Mod.Phys. 53, 745 (1981)
20. Graff, K. and Pieper, H., J.Electrochem.Soc. 128, 669 (1981) and Ref.[25],Ch. 44.1
21. Stutzmann, M. and Estle, T.L., editors .Hydrogen in Serniconductors.(Elsevier, Amsterdam 1991)
22. Cheng, Y.M. and Stavola, M., Phys. Rev.Lett. 73, 3419 (1994)
23. Goetzberger, A. and Shockley, W., J.Appl. Phys 31, 1821 (1960), also Ref.[25]
24. Lee, D.M. and Rozgonyi, G.A., AppLPhys. Lett. 65, 350 (1994)
25. Graff, K., Metallic Impurities in Silicon-Device Fabrication, (Springer, Heidelberg, New York, 1995) This recent book lists the most important metallic impurities in Si, gives numerical parameters for these impurities and offers recipes for etches and means of defect observations.
26. Sveinbjörnsson, E.Ö., Engström, O., and Södervall, U. J.Appl.Phys. 73,7311 (1993)
27. Pantelides, S.T., J.Appl.Phys. 75, 3264 (1994)
28. Pistoulet, B., Roche, F.M., and Abdalla, S., Phys. Rev. B 30, 5987 (1984)
29. Sheinkman, M.K. and Shik, Y.Ya., Fiz.Tekh.Poluprovodn. 10, 209 (1976)
30. Queisser, H.J., Annu.Reviews Mater.Sci. 22, 1 (1992)
31. Gregory, B.L., Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 67 (1970)
32. Lang, D.V., Logan, R.A., and Jaros, M., Phys.Rev. B19, 1015 (1979)
33. Queisser, H.J., Phys. Rev.Lett. 54, 234 (1985), also Refs.[29,30]
34. Queisser, H.J. and Theodorou, D.E., Phys.Rev.Lett. 43, 401 (1979); for a very recent application towards measuring metal-insulator transitions, see: M. Smith, J.Y. Lin, and H.X. Jiang, Phys.Rev.B51, 4132 (1995)
35. Theodorou, D.E., Queisser, H.J., and Bauser, E., Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 628 (1982)
36. Kirk, W.P. and Reed, M. A., Nanostructures and Mesoscopic Systems, (Academic, New York, 1992)
37. Bauser, E., Atomic Mechanisms in Semiconductor Liquid Phase Epitaxy, ch.20 in Handbook of Crystal Growth. Hurle, D.T.J., editor (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994)
38. A recent example of a team effort toward optimizing InGaAs/GaAs epitaxy, see: Höpner, A., Rechenberg, B., Seitz, H., Procop, H., Scheerschmidt, K., and Queisser, H.J., submitted to phys. stat. sol. (1995)
39. Ralls, K.S., Skocpol, W.J., Jackel, L.D., Howard, R.E., Fetter, L.A., Epworth, R.W., and Tennant, D.M., Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 228 (1984)
40. Rauh, H., Wacker's Atlas for Characterization of Defects in Silicon (Wacker-Chemitronic Co., Burghausen,Germany, undated). This atlas describes the categories of defects,all important preferential etches and gives pictorial examples of defect photomicrographs.
41. Queisser, H.J. Kristallene Krisen (Piper, Munich, 1985), English version: The Conquest of the Microchip (Harvard Univ.Press, Cambridge, MA, 1988)
42. A very recent review describes the ubiquity of H on and in Si: Pietsch, G.J., Appl.Phys. A 60, 347 (1995)
43. Eaglesham, David J., MRS Bulletin XIX, (12), 59 (December 1994). Acceptance speech for the MRS Outstanding Young Investigator Award at the 1994 MRS Spring Meeting : “What We Still Don’t Know About Silicon

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed