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Optical Waveguide Formation by Ion Implantation of Ti or Ag

  • D. B. Poker (a1) and D. K. Thomas (a1)


Ion implantation of Ti into LINbO3 has been shown to be an effective means of producing optical waveguides, while maintaining better control over the resulting concentration profile of the dopant than can be achieved by in-diffusion. While undoped, amorphous LiNbO3 can be regrown by solid-phase epitaxy at 400°C with a regrowth velocity of 250 Å/min, the higher concentrations of Ti required to form a waveguide (∼10%) slow the regrowth considerably, so that temperatures approaching 800°C are used. Complete removal of residual damage requires annealing temperatures of 1000°C, not significantly lower than those used with in-diffusion. Solid phase epitaxy of Agimplanted LiNbO3, however, occurs at much lower temperatures. The regrowth is completed at 400°C, and annealing of all residual damage occurs at or below 800°C. Furthermore, the regrowth rate is independent of Ag concentration up to the highest dose implanted to date, 1 × 1017 Ag/cm2. The usefulness of Ag implantation for the formation of optical waveguides is limited, however, by the higher mobility of Ag at the annealing temperature, compared to Ti.



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