- Cited by 20
Mohney, S.E. Luther, B.P. Wolter, S.D. Jackson, T.N. Karlicek, R.F. and Kern, R.S. 1998. TiN and ZrN based ohmic contacts to n-GaN. p. 134.
Luther, B P Mohney, S E and Jackson, T N 1998. Titanium and titanium nitride contacts to n-type gallium nitride. Semiconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 13, Issue. 11, p. 1322.
Cao, X. A. Ren, F. Lothian, J. R. Pearton, S. J. Abernathy, C. R. Zolper, J. C. Cole, M. W. Zeitouny, A. Eizenberg, M. and Shul, R. J. 1998. Behavior of W and WSix Contact Metallization on n- and p- Type GaN. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 537, Issue. ,
Cao, X. A. Pearton, S. J. Ren, F. and Lothian, J. R. 1998. Thermal stability of W and WSix contacts on p-GaN. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 73, Issue. 7, p. 942.
Liu, Q.Z. and Lau, S.S. 1998. A review of the metal–GaN contact technology. Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 42, Issue. 5, p. 677.
Ho, Jin-Kuo Jong, Charng-Shyang Chiu, Chien C. Huang, Chao-Nien Shih, Kwang-Kuo Chen, Li-Chien Chen, Fu-Rong and Kai, Ji-Jung 1999. Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN achieved by the oxidation of Ni/Au films. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 86, Issue. 8, p. 4491.
Chen, Li-Chien Ho, Jin-Kuo Chen, Fu-Rong Kai, Ji-Jung Chang, Li Jong, Chang-Shyang Chiu, Chien C. Huang, Chao-Nien and Shih, Kwang-Kuo 1999. The Effect of Heat Treatment on Ni/Au Ohmic Contacts to p-Type GaN. physica status solidi (a), Vol. 176, Issue. 1, p. 773.
Pearton, S. J. Zolper, J. C. Shul, R. J. and Ren, F. 1999. GaN: Processing, defects, and devices. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 86, Issue. 1, p. 1.
Chen, Li-Chien Chen, Fu-Rong Kai, Ji-Jung Chang, Li Ho, Jin-Kuo Jong, Charng-Shyang Chiu, Chien C. Huang, Chao-Nien Chen, Chin-Yuen and Shih, Kwang-Kuo 1999. Microstructural investigation of oxidized Ni/Au ohmic contact to p-type GaN. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 86, Issue. 7, p. 3826.
Würfl, Joachim Abrosimova, Vera Hilsenbeck, Jochen Nebauer, Erich Rieger, Walter and Tränkle, Günther 1999. Reliability considerations of III-nitride microelectronic devices. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 39, Issue. 12, p. 1737.
Cao, X. A. Ren, F. Pearton, S. J. Zeitouny, A. Eizenberg, M. Zolper, J. C. Abernathy, C. R. Han, J. Shul, R. J. and Lothian, J. R. 1999. W and WSix Ohmic contacts on p- and n-type GaN. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 17, Issue. 4, p. 1221.
Cao, X. A. Ren, F. Lothian, J. R. Pearton, S. J. Abernathy, C. R. Zolper, J. C. Cole, M. W. Zeitouny, A. Eizenberg, M. and Shul, R. J. 1999. Behavior of W and WSix Contact Metallization on n- and p- Type GaN. MRS Internet Journal of Nitride Semiconductor Research, Vol. 4, Issue. S1, p. 684.
Dang, G.T Zhang, A.P Ren, F Donovan, S.M Abernathy, C.R Hobson, W.S Lopata, J Chu, S.N.G Cao, X.A Wilson, R.G and Pearton, S.J 2000. p-Ohmic contact resistance for GaAs(C)/GaN(Mg). Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 105.
Zhang, A. P. Dang, G. T. Ren, F. Van Hove, J. M. Klaassen, J. J. Chow, P. P. Cao, X. A. and Pearton, S. J. 2000. Effect of N2 discharge treatment on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor ohmic contacts using inductively coupled plasma. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 18, Issue. 4, p. 1149.
Kuo, C.H Sheu, J.K Chi, G.C Huang, Y.L and Yeh, T.W 2001. Low-resistance Ni/Au ohmic contact to Mg-doped of Al0.15Ga0.85N/GaN superlattices. Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 45, Issue. 5, p. 717.
Nebauer, E sterle, W Hilsenbeck, J W rfl, J and Klein, A 2002. XTEM and TFXRD investigations of ohmic Ti/Al/Ti/Au/WSiN contacts on AlGaN/GaN HFET layer systems. Semiconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 17, Issue. 3, p. 249.
Beach, J. D. Collins, R. T. and Turner, J. A. 2003. Band-Edge Potentials of n-Type and p-Type GaN. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 150, Issue. 7, p. A899.
Chen, Z.Z Qin, Z.X Hu, C.Y Hu, X.D Yu, T.J Tong, Y.Z Ding, X.M and Zhang, G.Y 2004. Ohmic contact formation of Ti/Al/Ni/Au to n-GaN by two-step annealing method. Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol. 111, Issue. 1, p. 36.
Hall, H P Awaah, M A and Das, K 2004. Sputter-deposited metal contacts for n-type GaN. Semiconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 19, Issue. 2, p. 176.
Hu, C.Y. Ding, Z.B. Qin, Z.X. Chen, Z.Z. Xu, K. Wang, Y.J. Yang, Z.J. Yao, S.D. Shen, B. and Zhang, G.Y. 2007. Investigation on the different barrier effect of Ni and Pt in the Ti/Al/Pt/Au and Ti/Al/Ni/Au contacts to n-type GaN. Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 298, Issue. , p. 804.
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Ohmic contact strategies for n- and p-type GaN have been investigated electrically, chemically, and microstructurally using transmission line measurements, high-resolution EELS and cross-sectional TEM, respectively. The contributions to contact performance from work function differences, carrier concentrations, annealing treatments, and interface metallurgy have been examined. The contact materials of Ti, TiN, Au, and Au/Mg were deposited via electron beam evaporation; Al was deposited via thermal evaporation. As-deposited Al and TiN contacts to highly doped n-GaN were ohmic, with room-temperature specific contact resistivities of 8.6×10−5 Ω cm2 and 2.5×10−5 Ωcm2 respectively. The Ti contacts developed low-resistivity ohmic behavior as a result of annealing; TiN contacts also improved with further heat treatment. For p-GaN, Au became ohmic with annealing, while Au/Mg contacts were ohmic in the as-deposited condition. The performance, structure, and composition of different contact schemes varied widely from system to system. An integrated analysis of the results of this study is presented below and coupled with a discussion of the most appropriate contact systems for both n- and p-type GaN.
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