Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A Novel Method for True Work Function Determination of Metal Surfaces by Combined Kelvin Probe and Photoelectric Effect Measurements

  • Bert Lägel (a1), Iain D. Baikie (a1), Konrad Dirscherl (a1) and Uwe Petermann (a1)

Abstract

We have developed a novel method for in-situ measurements of the true work function (ø) of metal surfaces by combined ultra-high vacuum compatible Kelvin Probe and photoelectric effect measurements. The work function is an extremely sensitive parameter of surface condition and can be used to study oxidation and thin film growth on metal surfaces. For example, the increase in ø due to oxidation of polycrystalline rhenium is 1.9eV.

The Kelvin Probe measures local work function differences between a conducting sample and a reference tip in a non-contact, truly non-invasive way over a wide temperature range. However, it is an inherently relative technique and does not provide an absolute work function if the work function of the tip (øtip) is unknown.

We present a novel approach to measure øtip with the Kelvin Probe via the photoelectric effect, using a Gd foil as the photoelectron source, hereby combining the advantages of both methods to provide the absolute work function of the sample surface. We demonstrate the application of the technique by in-situ work function measurements during oxidation of polycrystalline rhenium. The extended Kelvin Probe method therefore has potential applications as a characterisation tool for thin film epitaxy and work function engineering of surfaces.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1 Kelvin, Lord, Philos. Mag 46, 82 (1898).
2 Zisman, W.A.. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 3, 367 (1932).
3 Baikie, I.D., Vanderwerf, K.O., Oerbekke, H., Broeze, J., Vansilthout, A., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 930 (1989).
4 Baikie, I.D., Estrup, P.J., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 3902 (1998).
5 Schmidt, M., Wolter, H., Nohlen, M., Wandelt, K., J. Vac. Sci Technol. A12, 1818 (1994).
6 Kopatzki, E., Keck, H.G., Baikie, I.D, Meyer, J.A., Behm, R.J., Surf. Sci. 345, L11 (1996)
7 Baikie, I.D., Petermann, U., Lägel, B., Surf. Sci. 433–435, 770 (1999).
8 Baikie, I.D., Bruggink, G.H in Materials Reliability in Microelectronics III, edited by Rodbell, K.P., Filter, W.F., Frost, H.J., Po, P.S., (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 309, Pittsburgh, PA, 1993), pp. 3540
9 Baikie, I.D. in Chemical Perspectives of Microelectronic Materials II, edited by Interrante, L.V., Jensen, K.F., Dubois, L.H., Gross, M.E. (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 204, Pittsburgh, PA, 1991), pp. 363368
10 Lägel, B., Baikie, I.D., Petermann, U. in Defect and Impurity Engineered Semiconductors and Devices II, edited by Ashok, S., Chevallier, J., Sumino, K., Sopori, B.L., Goetz, W., (Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 510, Pittsburgh, PA, 1998), pp. 619625
11 Petermann, U., Baikie, I.D., Lägel, B., Thin Solid Films 343–344, 492 (1999).
12 Baikie, I.D., Smith, P.J.S., Porterfield, D.M., Estrup, P.J., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1842 (1999).
13 Apker, L., Taft, E., Dickey, J., Phys. Rev. 73, 46 (1947).
14 Danon, A., Amirav, A., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion. Processes 96, 139 (1990).
15 Baikie, I.D., Mackenzie, S., Estrup, P.J.Z. and Meyer, J.A., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1326 (1991).
16 Fowler, R.H., Phys. Rev. 33, 45 (1931).
17 Eastman, D.E., Phys Rev. B2, 1 (1970).

A Novel Method for True Work Function Determination of Metal Surfaces by Combined Kelvin Probe and Photoelectric Effect Measurements

  • Bert Lägel (a1), Iain D. Baikie (a1), Konrad Dirscherl (a1) and Uwe Petermann (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed