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The New Netherland/New York Ceramic Chemistry Archive: Compositional Analysis of Bricks by ICP

  • Allan S. Gilbert (a1) and Garman Harbottle (a2)


Historical archaeologists investigating early American production and trade must work with the written record as well as the evidence from controlled excavation. Both kinds of data have their place in the inquiry, yet the details they furnish are not necessarily congruent or applicable to the solution of all historical questions. To illustrate, artifacts were not always manufactured in the places where they are found, but in order to resolve this uncertainty accurately and directly, the origins of excavated materials must often be determined by means that are independent of historic documentation. If sources can be shown to be distant, then despite any similarity to items of known local manufacture or written evidence suggesting otherwise, long-range exchange structures must have been present. The interpretation of archaeological and historical data can then be guided by more informed judgment.



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1. Wilcoxen, C., Dutch Trade and Ceramics in America in the Seventeenth Century (Albany Institute of History & Art, Albany, NY, 1987).
2. Ritchie, R. C., The Duke's Province (Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1977).
3. Ketchum, W. C. Jr., Potters and Potteries of New York State, 1650-1900, 2nd ed. (Syracuse Univ. Press, Syracuse, NY, 1987).
4. Janowitz, M. F., Morgan, K. T., and Rothschild, N. A., in Domestic Pottery of the Northeastern United States, 1625-1850, edited by Turnbaugh, S. P. (Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1985), p. 46.
5. A detailed report on the archive including discussion of methods and potential uses will appear in Gilbert, A. S., Harbottle, G., and deNoyelles, D., Historical Archaeology (forthcoming).
6. Ries, H., Clays of New York, Their Properties and Uses (Bulletin of the New York State Museum 7 [35], Albany, NY, 1900).
7. See Sneath, P. H. A. and Sokal, R. R., Numerical Taxonomy (Freeman, San Francisco, 1973), pp. 400ff.; J. E. Doran and F. R. Hodson, Mathematics and Computers in ArchaeoloQy (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1975), pp. 209ff.; W. R. Klecka, Discriminant Analysis (Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 1980).
8. Dixon, W. J., editor, BMDP Statistical Software Manual (Univ. California Press, Berkeley, 1988).
9. Hume, I. Noel, A Guide to Artifacts of Colonial America (Knopf, New York, 1969), pp. 8084.
10. Gurcke, K., Bricks and Brickmakiné, A Handbook for Historical Archaeology (Univ. Idaho Press, Moscow, ID, 1987); cf. also the focus on Roman brick in A. D. McWhirr, editor, Roman Brick and Tile: Studies in Manufacture, Distribution, and Use in the Western Empire (British Archaeological Reports S68, Oxford, 1979); G. Brodribb, Roman Brick and Tile: An Analytical Survey and Corpus of Surviving Examples (Sutton, Gloucester, 1987); H. Tapio, Organization of Roman Brick Production in the First and Second Centuries A. D. (Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Dissertationes Humanarum Litterarum 5, Helsinki, 1975).
11. Sopko, J. S., ms. on file Dept. of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation, Waterford, NY, 1987 (unpublished).
12. deNoyelles, D., Within These Gates (privately published, Thiells, NY, 1982), pp. 3033.
13. Neff, Cf. H., Bishop, R. L., and Sayre, E. V., Journal of Archaeological Science 15, 159–72 (1988).

The New Netherland/New York Ceramic Chemistry Archive: Compositional Analysis of Bricks by ICP

  • Allan S. Gilbert (a1) and Garman Harbottle (a2)


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