Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Natural Analogues: Their Application to the Prediction of the Long-Term Behavior of Nuclear Waste Forms

  • Rodney C. Ewing (a1) and Michael J. Jercinovic (a1)

Abstract

One of the unique and scientifically most difficult aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation ofshot-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (103-105 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct verification of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural analogues of both the repository environment (e.g. radionuclide migration at Oklo) and nuclear waste form behavior (e.g. alteration of basaltic glasses and radiation damage in minerals) have been used to demonstrate the long-term behavior of large scale geologic systems and, on a smaller scale, waste form durability. This paper reviews the use of natural analogues to predict the long-term behavior of nuclear waste form glasses. Particular emphasis is placed on the inherent limitations of any conclusions that are based on “proof” by analogy. An example -- corrosion of borosilicate glass -- is discussed in detail with specific attention to the proper and successful use of natural analogues (basaltic glass) in understanding the long-term corrosion behavior of borosilicate glass.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Ewing, R. C., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management. Vol. 1, edited by McCarthy, G. J. (Plenum Press, New York, 1978), p. 57.
2. Pye, L. D., O'Keefe, J. A. and Frechette, V. D., editors, Natural Glasses (North-Holland Physics Publishing-Amsterdam, 1984) 662 pages.
3. Clark, D. E., White, W. B. and Machiels, A. J., editors, in Advances in Ceramics 20: Nuclear Waste Management II, (American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio) in press.
4. Ewing, R. C. and Haaker, R. F., Natural Glasses: Analogues for Radioactive Waste Forms (Battelle PNL Report 2776/UC-70, 1979) 71 pp.
5. Malow, G. and Ewing, R. C., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, Vol. 3, edited by Moore, J. G. (Plenum Press, New York, 1981), p. 315.
6. Allen, C. C., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management V, edited by Lutze, W. (North-Holland, New York, 1982) p. 37
7. Malow, G., Lutze, W. and Ewing, R. C., J. Non-Crystalline Solids 67, 305 (1984).
8. Lutze, W., Malow, G., Ewing, R. C., Jercinovic, M. J. and Keil, K., Nature 314, 252 (1985).
9. Byers, C. D., Jercinovic, M. J., Ewing, R. C. and Keil, K., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management VIII, edited by Jantzen, C. M., Stone, J. A. and Ewing, R. C. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1985) p. 583.
10. Grambow, B., Jercinovic, M. J., Ewing, R. C. and Byers, C. D., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management IX, edited by Werme, L. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1986) p. 263.
11. Cowan, R. and Ewing, R. C., in Microanalysis-1986, edited by Romig, A. D. Jr. and Chambers, W. F. (San Francisco Press, Inc., San Francisco, 1986) p. 131.
12. Jercinovic, M. J., Ewing, R. C. and Byers, C. D., in Advances in Ceramics 20: Nuclear Waste Management II, edited by Clark, D. E., White, W. B. and Machiels, A. J. (American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio) in press.
13. Byers, C. D., Ewing, R. C., Jercinovic, M. J., in Advances in Ceramics 20: Nuclear Waste Management II, edited by Clark, D. E., White, W. B. and Machiels, A. J. (American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio) in press.
14. Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, Book II., iv, translated by Tredennick, Hugh (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1966) pp. 185189.
15. Niiniluoto, Ilkka, in Applications of Inductive Logic, edited by Cohen, L. J. and Hesse, Mary, editors, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1980) pp. 218234.
16. Mill, J. S., A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive: Being A Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation (Harper & Brothers, Publishers, New York, 1874) 659 pp.
17. Simpson, G. G., in The Fabric of Geology, edited by Albritton, C. C. Jr., (Freeman, Cooper & Company, Stanford, California, 1963) p. 24.
18. Alvarez, L. W., Alvarez, W., Asaro, F., and Michel, H. V., Science 208, 1095 (1980).
19. Archibald, J. D. and Clemens, W. A., American Scientist 70, 377 (1982).
20. Darwin, C., On the Origin of Species (John Murray, London, 1859).
21. Gould, S. J., American Scientist 74, (1) 60 (1986).
22. Lyell, C., Principles of Geology (Hilliard, Gray, and Co., Boston, 1842).
23. Barkatt, Aa., Boulos, M. S., Barkatt, Al., Sousanpour, W., Boroomand, M. A., Macedo, P. B. and O'Keefe, J. A., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48, 361 (1984).
24. Barkatt, Aa., Saad, E. E., Adiga, R., Sousanpour, W., Barkatt, Al. and Alterescu, S., in Advances in Ceramics 20: Nuclear Waste Management II, edited by Clark, D. E., White, W. B. and Machiels, A. J. (American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio) in press.
25. Dickin, A. P., Nature 294, 342 (1981).
26. Simmons, J. H., Macedo, P. B., Barkatt, Aa. and Litovitz, T. A., Nature 278, 729 (1979).
27. Zielinski, R. A., Chemical Geology 27, 47 (1979).
28. Zielinski, R. A., Lipman, P. W. and Millard, H. T. Jr., American Mineralogist 62, 426 (1977).
29. White, A. F., Geochimica et Cosmochimia Acta 47, 805 (1983).
30. White, A. F., in Advances in Ceramics 20: Nuclear Waste Management II, edited by Clark, D. E., White, W. B. and Machiels, A. J. (American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio) in press.
31. Alexander, G. B., Heston, W. M. and Iler, R. K., Journal of Physical Chemistry 58, 453 (1954).
32. Morey, G. W., Fournier, R. O. and Rowe, J. J., Journal of Geophysical Research 69, 1995 (1964).
33. Barkatt, Aa., Macedo, P. B., Sousanpour, W., Barkatt, Al., Boroomand, M. A., Szoke, P. and Rogers, V. L., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, vol. VI, edited by Brookins, D. G. (North-Holland, New York, New York, 1983). pp. 227234.
34. Barkatt, Aa., Sousanpour, W., Barkatt, Al., Boroomand, M. A. and Macedo, P. B., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, vol. VII, edited by McVay, G. L. (North-Holland, New York, New York, 1984) pp. 643653.
35. Grambow, B., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, vol. VIII, edited by Werme, L. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1985) pp. 1527.
36. Friedman, I. and Smith, R. L., American Antiquity 25, 476 (1960).
37. Friedman, I. and Smith, R. L. and Long, W. D., Geological Society of America Bulletin 77, 323 (1966).
38. Friedman, I. and Trembour, F. W., American Scientist 66, 44 (1978).
39. Bonatti, E., Bull. Volcanol. 28, 257 (1965).
40. Peacock, M. A., Geol. Magazine 63, 385 (1926).
41. Hay, R. L. and Iijima, A., Geological Society of America Memoir 116, (1966) 130 pp.
42. Hay, R. L. and Iijima, A., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 17, 141 (1968).
43. Furnes, H., Chemical Geology 43, 271 (1984).
44. Allen, C. C., Gooding, J. L., Jercinovic, M., and Keil, K., Icarus 45, 347 (1981).
45. Moore, J. G., Geol, U. S.. Survey Professional Paper 550-D, (1966) pp. 163171.
46. Honnorez, J., in Natural Zeolites: Occurrence, Properties, Use, edited by Sand, L. B. and Mumpton, F. A. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1978) 546 pp.
47. Staudigel, H. and Hart, S. R., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47, 337 (1983).
48. Jakobsson, S. P. and Moore, J. G., Geological Society of America Bulletin 97, 648 (1986).
49. Ewing, C., and Krumhansl, J. L., American Nuclear Society Transactions 33, 280 (1979).
50. Jercinovic, J., Ewing, R. C., Keil, K., Grambow, B. and Lutze, W., Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Water-Rock Interaction, Reykjavik, Iceland, August 8-17, 1986 (in press).
51. Crovisier, J. L., Thomassin, J. H., Juteau, T., Eberhart, J. P., Touray, J. C. and Baillif, P., Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 47, 377 (1983).
52. Crovisier, J. L., Ehret, G., Eberhart, J. P. and Juteau, T., Sci. Geol. Bull. 36, 187 (1983).
53. Crovisier, J. L., Fritz, B., Grambow, B. and Eberhart, J. P., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management IX, edited by Werme, L. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1986) p. 273280.
54. Bates, J. K., Jardine, L. J. and Steindler, M. J., Science 218, 51 (1982).
55. Bates, J. K. and Steindler, M. J., Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management VI, edited by Brookins, D. G. (North-Holland, New York, New York, 1983) p. 83.
56. Friedman, I. and Long, W., Science 191, 347 (1976).
57. Morgenstein, M. and Riley, T. J., Asian Perspectives XVII(2), 145 (1974).
58. Hekinian, R. and Hoffert, M., Marine Geology 19, 91 (1975).
59. Juteau, T., Noak, Y., Whitechurch, H. and Courtois, C., Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 51-53 (1979).
60. Plodinec, M. J., Jantzen, C. M. and Wicks, G. G., in Advances in Ceramics 8: Nuclear Waste Management I, edited by Wicks, G. G. and Ross, W. A. (American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1984) pp. 491495.
61. Plodinec, M. J., Jantzen, C. M. and Wicks, G. G., in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management VII, edited by McVay, G. L. (North-Holland, New York, New York, 1984) pp. 755762.
62. Jantzen, C. M. and Plodinec, M. J., Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 67, 207 (1984).
63. Jantzen, C. M., Advances in Ceramics 20: Nuclear Waste Management II, edited by Clark, D. E., White, W. B. and Machiels, A. J. (American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio) in press.
64. Parkhurst, D. L., Thorstensen, D. C. and Plummer, L. N., Water-Resources Investigations 80-96 (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, 1980).

Natural Analogues: Their Application to the Prediction of the Long-Term Behavior of Nuclear Waste Forms

  • Rodney C. Ewing (a1) and Michael J. Jercinovic (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.