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Nanostructured Transparent Conductive Oxides for Photovoltaic Applications

  • Roger E. Welser (a1) (a2), Adam W. Sood (a1) (a2) (a3), Jaehee Cho (a3), E. Fred Schubert (a3), Jennifer L. Harvey (a4), Nibir K. Dhar (a5) and Ashok K. Sood (a1) (a2)...

Abstract

Oblique-angle deposition is used to fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO) optical coatings with a porous, columnar nanostructure. Nanostructured ITO layers with a reduced refractive index are then incorporated into antireflection coating (ARC) structures with a step-graded refractive index design, enabling increased transmittance into an underlying semiconductor over a wide range of wavelengths of interest for photovoltaic applications. Low-refractive index nanostructured ITO coatings can also be combined with metal films to form an omnidirectional reflector (ODR) structure capable of achieving high internal reflectivity over a broad spectrum of wavelengths and a wide range of angles. Such conductive high-performance ODR structures on the back surface of a thin-film solar cell can potentially increase both the current and voltage output by scattering unabsorbed and emitted photons back into the active region of the device.

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[1] Kim, J. K., Gessmann, T., Schubert, E. F., Xi, J.-Q., Luo, H., Cho, J., Sone, C., and Park, Y.GaInN Light-Emitting Diode with Conductive Omnidirectional Reflector Having a Low-Refractive-Index Indium-Tin Oxide Layer,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, no. 012501, January 2006.
[2] Poxson, D. J., Mont, F. W., Schubert, M. F., Kim, J. K., and Schubert, E. F., “Quantification of Porosity and Deposition Rate of Nanoporous Films Grown by Oblique-Angle Deposition,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 101914, September 2008.
[3] Yan, X., Mont, F. W., Poxson, D. J., Schubert, M. F., Kim, J. K., Cho, J., and Schubert, E. F., “Refractive-Index-Matched Indium-Tin-Oxide Electrodes for Liquid Crystal Displays,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 48, no. 120203, December 2009.
[4] Sood, A. W., Poxson, D. J., Mont, F. W., Chhajed, S., Cho, J., Schubert, E. F., Welser, R. E., Dhar, N. K., and Sood, A. K., “Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Optical and Electrical Properties of Nanostructured Indium Tin Oxide Fabricated by Oblique-Angle Deposition,” Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 12, pp. 39503953, May 2012.
[5] Yeh, P., Optical Waves in Layered Media, Hoboken, New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
[6] Xi, J.-Q., Ojha, M., Cho, W., Plawsky, J. L., Gill, W. N., Gessmann, T., and Schubert, E. F., “Omnidirectional Reflector Using Nanoporous SiO2 as a Low-Refractive-Index Material,” Optics Letters, vol. 30, pp. 15181520, June 2005.
[7] Welser, R. E., Pethuraja, G. G., Sood, A. K., Laboutin, O. A., Chaplin, M., Un, V., Johnson, W., Sood, A. W., Poxson, D. J., Cho, J., Schubert, E. F., Haldar, P., and Harvey, J. L., “High Voltage Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells,” Proc. of SPIE, vol. 8111, no. 81110I, August 2011.
[8] Welser, R. E., Laboutin, O. A., Tatavarti, R., Liu, J., Chern, K., Johnson, W., Pan, N., and Sood, A. K., “Thin-Film Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells,” Proc. of NASA SPRAT XXII, September 2011.

Keywords

Nanostructured Transparent Conductive Oxides for Photovoltaic Applications

  • Roger E. Welser (a1) (a2), Adam W. Sood (a1) (a2) (a3), Jaehee Cho (a3), E. Fred Schubert (a3), Jennifer L. Harvey (a4), Nibir K. Dhar (a5) and Ashok K. Sood (a1) (a2)...

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