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Na Impurity Chemistry in Photovoltaic Cigs thin-Films: An Investigation with Photo- and Auger Electron Spectroscopies

  • D. W. Niles (a1), K. Ramanathan (a1), J. Granata (a1), F. Hasoon (a1), R. Noufi (a1), B. J. Tielsch (a2) and J. E. Fulghum (a2)...

Abstract

The incorporation of Na into Cu(Inl-xGax)Se2 thin-films is known to lead to an improvement in device performance. The authors use X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopies to determine the chemical nature of Na in Cu(Inl-xGax)Se2 thin-films. The Na concentration is determined to be ∼ 0.1 atomic percent in the bulk of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin-films. The Na is chemically bonded to Se. The authors propose a model invoking the replacement of column III elements by Na during the growth of Cu(Inl-xGax)Se2 thin-films. These Nain and NaGa defects act as acceptor states to increase the p-type conductivity of Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin-films.

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Na Impurity Chemistry in Photovoltaic Cigs thin-Films: An Investigation with Photo- and Auger Electron Spectroscopies

  • D. W. Niles (a1), K. Ramanathan (a1), J. Granata (a1), F. Hasoon (a1), R. Noufi (a1), B. J. Tielsch (a2) and J. E. Fulghum (a2)...

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