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Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Growth and Low-Energy Ion Polishing of Thin Molybdenum Films for EUV Multilayer Mirrors

  • Peter Klaver (a1) (a2), Wim Goedheer (a1), Fred Bijkerk (a1) and Barend J. Thijsse (a3)


We report on the simulation of the growth and subsequent krypton ion polishing of thin molybdenum films, required for extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror fabrication. We have used a comprehensive Molecular Dynamics (MD) code, principally enabling a simulation of the deposition, ion bombardment and annealing processes. Ion energies used are in the sub-keV range, and the ion angle of incidence is varied between 30 and 60 degrees off-normal.

The effects of ion polishing on the surface roughness are discussed, as well as the increase in (surface) atom mobility. We also report data on sputtering yields, ion penetration depths, trapping, energy transfer and krypton implantation and saturation.

The results are compared with TRIM results, and the relevance of MD and TRIM simulations for specific purposes is discussed. Also, the effects of short-time, high-temperature annealing of an amorphous film are investigated.



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1. Louis, E., Yakshin, A. E., Goerts, P. C., Abdali, S., Maas, E. L., Stuik, R., Bijkerk, F., Schmitz, D., Scholze, F., Ulm, G., Haidl, M., Proc. SPIE 3676, 844(1999).
2. Johnson, R. A. and Oh, D. J., J. Mater. Res. 4, 1195(1989).
3. Eckstein, W., Computer Simulation of Ion-Solid Interactions, Springer, Heidelberg, 1991, p. 40.
4. Klaver, T. P. C. and Thijsse, B. J., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 504, 51(1999).
5. Abdali, S., Yakshin, A., Louis, E., and Bijkerk, F., to be published.
6. Biersack, J. P. and Haggmark, L. G., Nucl. Instr. Meth. 174, 257(1980).


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