Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Microtexture and Strain in Electroplated Copper Interconnects

  • R. Spolenak (a1), D. L. Barr (a1), M. E. Gross (a1), K. Evans-Lutterodt (a1), W. L. Brown (a1), N. Tamura (a2), A. A. Macdowell (a2), R. S. Celestre (a2), H. A. Padmore (a2), B. C. Valek (a3), J. C. Bravman (a3), P. Flinn (a3), T. Marieb (a4), R. R. Keller (a5), B. W. Batterman (a2) (a6) and J. R. Patel (a2) (a6)...

Abstract

The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbeam x-ray diffraction (MBXRD) that have enabled measurement not only of the microstructure of totally encapsulated conductors but also of the local stresses in them on a micron and submicron scale. White x-rays from the Advanced Light Source were focused to a micron spot size by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The sample was stepped under the micro-beam and Laue images obtained at each sample location using a CCD area detector. Microstructure and local strain were deduced from these images. Cu lines with widths ranging from 0.8 [.proportional]m to 5 [.proportional]m and thickness of 1 [.proportional]m were investigated. Comparisons are made between the capabilities of MBXRD and the well established techniques of broad beam XRD, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam imagining (FIB).

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Blech, I. A. and Tai, K. L., Appl. Phys. Lett. 30 (8), 387389 (1977).10.1063/1.89414
2. Wang, P.-C., Cargill, G. S. III, Noyan, I. C., and Hu, C.-K., Appl. Phys. Letters 72 (11), 12961298 (1998).10.1063/1.120604
3. Chung, J.-S. and Ice, G. E., J. Appl. Phys. 85, 35463555 (1999).
4. Kraemer, S., Mayer, J., Witt, C., Weickenmeier, A., and Ruehle, M., Ultramicroscopy 81, in press (2000).
5. Maier, H. J., Keller, R. R., Renner, H., Mughrabi, H., and Preston, A., Philosophical Magazine A74, 2346 (1996).10.1080/01418619608239688
6. Tamura, N., Chung, J.-S., Ice, G. E., Larson, B. C., Budai, J. D., and Lowe, W., Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 563, 175180 (1999).10.1557/PROC-563-175
7. Wilkinson, A. J., Ultramicroscopy 62 (4), 237247 (1996).10.1016/0304-3991(95)00152-2
8. Tamura, N., Valek, B. C., Spolenak, R., MacDowell, A. A., Celestre, R. S., Padmore, H. A., Brown, W. L., Bravman, J. C., Flinn, P., Marieb, T., Batterman, B. W. and, Patel, J. R., Mat. Soc. Rec. Proc. submitted (2000).
9. MacDowell, A. A., Chang, C. H., Padmore, H. A., Patel, J. R., and Thompson, A. C., Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. 524, 5558 (1998).10.1557/PROC-524-55
10. Spolenak, R., Volkert, C. A., Takahashi, K. M., Fiorillo, S. A., Miner, J. F., and Brown, W. L., Mat. Res. Soc. Proc. in print (1999).
11. Lingk, C., Gross, M. E., and Brown, W. L., Applied Physics Letters 74 (5), 682684 (1999).10.1063/1.122986
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

MRS Online Proceedings Library (OPL)
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 1946-4274
  • URL: /core/journals/mrs-online-proceedings-library-archive
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed