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Microstructure and Properties of Native Insulators Formed on Single Crystal Germanium

  • O. J. Gregory (a1), E. E. Crisman (a2), J. Severns (a3) and P. J. Stiles (a2)

Abstract

The phases, morphologies and microstructures of native oxides and nitrides, grown on the vicinal planes of germanium, are discussed. Thermal oxides, formed under high pressure, were shown to be primarily amorphous for (100) and (110) oriented substrates and intermixed with a crystalline hexagonal phase on the (111) surfaces. Thermal treatments, in one atmosphere of flowing ammonia gas, converted oxide films to mixtures of nitrides and oxynitrides with the nitrides found to be combinations of a- and β-Ge3N4. The α-phase formed from condensation of vapors above the surface whereas the β-phase was a solid-solid reaction product which initiates at the oxide/germanium interface. These two processes appeared to proceed independently of each other. Results of low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), far infrared transmission (FIRT), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are discussed.

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Microstructure and Properties of Native Insulators Formed on Single Crystal Germanium

  • O. J. Gregory (a1), E. E. Crisman (a2), J. Severns (a3) and P. J. Stiles (a2)

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