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Microstructural Studies of Multiphase (Zr,Ti)(V,Cr,Mn,Co,Ni)2 Alloys for NiMH Negative Electrodes

  • L. A. Bendersky (a1), K. Wang (a1), W. J. Boettinger (a1), D. E. Newbury (a1), K. Young (a2) and B. Chao (a2)...

Abstract

The solidification microstructures of six Laves-based (Zr,Ti)(TM,Ni)2 alloys (TM= V,Cr, Mn,Co) intended for use as novel negative electrodes in Ni-metal hydride batteries were studied here; these alloys often have their best electrochemical properties when in the cast state. Solidification occurs by dendritic growth of a hexagonal C14 Laves phase followed by peritectic solidification of a cubic C15 Laves phase and formation of a cubic B2 phase in interdendritic regions. The observed sequence of Laves phase C14/C15 upon solidification agrees with predictions using effective compositions and thermodynamic assessments of the ternary systems, Ni-Cr-Zr and Cr-Ti-Zr. The paper also examines the complex internal structure of the interdendritic grains formed by solid-state transformation, which plays an important role in the electrochemical charge/discharge characteristics. By studying one alloy it is shown that the interdendritic grains solidify as a B2 (Ti,Zr)44(Ni,TM)56 phase, and then undergo transformation to Zr7Ni10-type, Zr9Ni11-type and martensitic phases. The transformations obey orientation relationships between the high-temperature B2 phase and the low-temperature Zr-Ni-type intermetallics, and consequently lead to a multivariant structure. Binary Ni-Zr and ternary Ti-Ni-Zr phase diagrams were used to rationalize the formation of the observed domain structure.

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Keywords

Microstructural Studies of Multiphase (Zr,Ti)(V,Cr,Mn,Co,Ni)2 Alloys for NiMH Negative Electrodes

  • L. A. Bendersky (a1), K. Wang (a1), W. J. Boettinger (a1), D. E. Newbury (a1), K. Young (a2) and B. Chao (a2)...

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