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The Mechanism of Twinning in Zincblende Structure Crystals: New Insights on Polarity Effects From a Study of Magnetic Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski Grown Inp Single Crystals

  • M. Dudley (a1), B. Raghothamachar (a1), Y. Guo (a1), X. R. Huang (a1), H. Chung (a1), D. J. Larson (a1), D. T. J. Hurle (a2), D. F. Bliss (a3), V. Prasad (a4) and Z. Huang (a5)...

Abstract

Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography (SWBXT) and synchrotron X-ray anomalous scattering have been employed to determine the polarity of {111} edge facets, anchored to the three phase boundary (TPB) on which twinning is observed to nucleate in Magnetic Liquid Encapsulated Czochralski (MLEC) grown sulfur doped, <001> InP single crystals. Analysis of the results indicates that both the formation of edge facets and the nucleation of twins occur preferentially on {1 1 1}P faces. Of the four possible sets of edge facets, belonging to the {1 1 1}P form, which are oriented so as to be thermodynamically favored to be anchored to the TPB, two can give rise to a {115} to {1 1 1}P external shoulder facet conversion upon twinning, while the other two can give rise to a {114} to {110} conversion. For these cases, twinning is only observed when the {1 1 1}P edge facets are anchored to the TPB in a region where the shoulder angle is close to 74.21° or 70.53°, facilitating the production of the {115} and {114} external shoulder facets, respectively, prior to twinning. These observations are discussed in light of calculated surface energies of the various internal and external facets.

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