Eu3+ doped Y2O3 and Lu2O3 nanocrystalline powders were synthesized via combustion technique using urea as a fuel and the metal nitrates as oxidants. The compacted nanopowders were vacuum sintered in order to form the translucent ceramics. A significant enhancement of emission characteristics was observed from the ceramics synthesized from the nanoparticles by controlling the vacuum-sintering conditions. Although the processed ceramics display superior emission characteristics, the nanocrystalline phosphor powders also display reasonably good emission characteristics. Highly epitaxial Y2O3:Eu3+ and Lu2O3:Eu3+ films were deposited on various substrates under different growth and optimization conditions using pulsed-laser deposition technique using high-density translucent ceramic target. Superior spectroscopic performance was obtained on films grown on sapphire substrates due to high-quality and epitaxial nature of the film.