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Long-Term Release from High Level Waste Glass - Part IV: The Effect of Leaching Mechanism

  • Eberhard Freude (a1), Bernd Grambow (a1), Werner Lutze (a1), Harald Rabe (a1) and Rodney C. Ewing (a2)...

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During the past ten years extensive data have been determined for the corrosion of nuclear waste forms in short-term laboratory experiments (usually less than one year). The long-term behavior of glass has been inferred by: (1) the acceleration of corrosion rates at high temperatures [1]; (2) the use of high surface areas of the glass to small volumes of solution [1]; and the analysis of natural glasses altered over long periods of geologic time [2, 3]. The most recent efforts have concentrated on understanding the mechanisms of corrosion [1, 4, 5]. The corrosion mechanism may be used to make long-term extrapolations of the “stability” of the waste form. In this paper, we consider a linear time dependence for the corrosion under near saturation conditions and use a rate equation in the QTERM code [6, 7, 8] to model the long-term behavior of the German glass, C-31−3EC [9], JSS A [10, 11] and SRL TDS 131 [1]. The data base for C-31−3EC has been published elsewhere [9, 12, 13, 14], and we include experimental work completed by Rabe for boron and silica, at 200°C.

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[1] Mendel, J.E., Compiler, Report PNL 5157 (1984).
[2] Malow, G., Lutze, W., and Ewing, R.C., J. Noncryst. Solids 67, 305 (1984).
[3] Byers, C.D., Jercinovic, M.J., Ewing, R.C., and Keil, K., this volume.
[4] Grambow, B., this volume.
[5] Haaker, R.F., Malow, G., and Offermann, P., this volume.
[6] Altenhein, F.K., Lutze, W., and Ewing, R.C., Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management V, Lutze, W. ed., pp. 4556 (North Holland, New York, 1982).
[7] Altenhein, F.K., Lutze, W., and Ewing, R.C., Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management VI, Brookins, D.G. ed., pp. 269280 (North Holland, New York, 1983).
[8] Altenhein, F.K., Lutze, W., and Ewing, R.C., Advances in Ceramics, Vol. 8, Nuclear Waste Management, Wicks, G.G. and Ross, W.A. ed., pp. 636646 (Amer. Ceramic Soc., Columbus, Ohio, 1984).
[9] Engelmann, Ch., ed., Report EUR 91268EN (1984).
[10] Hermansson, H.P. et al., Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management VII, McVay, G.L. ed., pp. 671679 (North Holland, New York, 1984).
[11] Hermansson, H.P. et al., JSS Report, STUDSVIK/NW - 84/653 (1984).
[12] Malow, G., in ref. 6, pp. 25–36.
[13] Lutze, W., Malow, G., Rabe, H., and Headley, T., in ref. 7, pp. 37–45.
[14] Grambow, B., XIII Intern. Congress on Glass, Hamburg 1983, Glastechnische Berichte Sonderband.
[15] Rimstidt, J.D., and Barnes, H.L., Geochim. Cosm. Acta, 44, 16831699 (1980).
[16] Grambow, B., Ein physikalisch - chemisches Modell für den Mechanismus des Glaskorrosion - unter besonderer Berücksichtigung simulierter radioaktiver Abfallgläser. Dissertation, Freie Universitat Berlin 1984.
[17] Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook, DOE/T1C 11400, 1981.
[18] Private communication from Werme, L., SKB Stockholm, Sweden (1984).
[19] Friedman, I., Smith, R.L., and Long, D., Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 77, 323 (1966).
[20] Bates, J.F., and Steindler, M.J., in ref. 7, pp. 83–90.
[21] Wicks, G.G., and Wallace, R.M., in ref. 7, pp. 23–28.
[22] Laude, F., Vernaz, E., and Saint-Gaudens, M., in ref. 7, pp. 239–248

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