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Liquid Filled Hourglasses: A Study of Interstitial Fluid Effects on the Kinetic Behavior of Granular Materials

  • Benson K. Muite (a1) and Melany L. Hunt (a1)


Experimental measurements of discharge rate and observations of flow pattern were made for spherical, monosized particles in a liquid- filled, hourglass shaped container. Different combinations of fluid properties, solid properties and vessel geometry exhibited a range of flow patterns that are described as lubricated, fluidized, oscillatory, or localized channeling discharges. A Bagnold number is used to present the discharge rate and flow regime results.



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1) Drucker, J.R., Drucker, M.E., Nedderman, R.M., The Discharge of Granular Materials from Unventilated Hoppers, Powder Technology, 42, 314 (1985)
2) Nedderman, R.M., Statics and Kinematics of Granular Materials, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992), pp 292328
3) Zeininger, G., Brennen, C.E., Interstitial fluid effects in hopper flows of granular materials, Proc. Cavitation and Multiphase Flow Forum, Albuquerque, NM, (American Society of Mechanical Engineering, New York, 1985).
4) Gidaspow, D., Multiphase Flow and Fluidization, (Academic Press, San Diego, 1994), pp102103, 304–305


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