Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Lignins: Structure and Distribution in Wood and Pulp

  • John R. Obst (a1)

Abstract

Lignin is the stuff that makes trees “woody.” Usually constituting from one-fifth to one-third of wood, lignin strongly influences its chemical and physical properties. A major use of wood is for the production of pulp for paper and paperboard products. The residual lignin in pulp fibers greatly affects paper properties and, therefore, the uses of these pulps.

Lignin is a rather unusual substance. Polymerized through radical coupling of propenylphenols, it forms several types of interunit bonds and a three-dimensional network may result. The lignin of gymnosperms (softwoods) is made up mostly of a single monomer type. As a result, the lignins of gymnosperms do not differ much from species to species. However, the lignins of angiosperms (hardwoods) do vary considerably among species because these lignins are derived from two monomer types which are often present in differing proportions. Furthermore, the ratio of monomer types may vary among different cell types and between cell regions within a species.

This review, intended mainly for those unfamiliar with the details of lignin chemistry, will provide an overview of the formation, structure and distribution of lignins in wood and of the distribution of lignin in pulp fibers.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Fengel, D. and Wegener, G., Wood, Chemistry, Ultrastructure, Reactions, (Walther de Gruyter, New York, 1984).
2. Sarkanen, K.V. and Ludwig, C.H., Eds., Lignins, Occurrence, Formation, Structure and Reactions, (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971).
3. Higuchi, T., Ed., Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Wood Components, (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1985).
4. Rowell, R., Ed., The Chemistry of Solid Wood, (ACS Advances in Chemistry Series 207, Washington, D.C. 1984).
5. Glasser, W.G. and Sarkanen, S., Eds., Lignin, Properties and Materials, (ACS Symposium Series 397, Washington, D.C., 1989)
6. Lewis, N.G. and Paice, M.G., Eds. Plant Cell Wall Polymers, Biogenesis and Biodegradation, (ACS Symposium Series 399, Washington, D.C., 1989).
7. Wood, W.A. and Kellog, S.T., Eds. Methods in Enzymology, Volume 161, Biomass, Part B: Lignin, Pectin and Chitin, (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1988).
8. Timell, T.E., Compression Wood in Gymnosperms, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1986).
9. Robinson, J.M., Historical Biology, In press.
10. Sakakibara, A., Wood Science and Technology 14, 89 (1980).
11. Nimz, H., Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 13, 313 (1974).
12. Obst, J.R. and Landucci, L.L., Holzforschung 40 (Suppl.), 87 (1986).
13. Eriksson, I., Lidbrandt, O. and Westermark, U., Wood Science and Technology 22, 251 (1988).
14. Westermark, U., Wood Science and Technology 19, 323 (1985).
15. Westermark, U., Lidbrandt, O. and Eriksson, I., Wood Science and Technology 22, 243 (1988).
16. Boutelje, J.B. and Ericksson, I., Holzforschung 38, 249 (1984).
17. Saka, S. and Goring, D.A.I., in Biosynthesis and Biodegradation of Wood Components, edited by Higuchi, T., (Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1985), p. 51.
18. Wood, J.R. and Goring, D.A.I., Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada 72, T95 (1971).
19. Fergus, B.J., Procter, A.R., Scott, J.A.N. and Goring, D.A.I., Wood Science and Technology 3, 117 (1969)
20. Hardell, H.-L., Leary, G.J., Stoll, M. and Westermark, U., Svensk Papperstidning 83, 71 (1980).
21. Obst, J.R., Sachs, I.B. and Kuster, T.A., Holzforschung 42, 229 (1988).
22. Obst, J.R., Landucci, L.L. and Manders, W.F., Fourth International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry (Paris) Volume 1, p. 273 (1987).
23. Fergus, B.J. and Goring, D.A.I., Wood Science and Technology 24, 113 (1970).
24. Musha, Y. and Goring, D.A.I., Wood Science and Technology 9, 45 (1975).
25. Procter, A.R., Yean, W.Q. and Goring, D.A.I., Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada 68, T445 (1967).
26. Wood, J.R., Ahlgren, P.A. and Goring, D.A.I., Svensk Paperstitdning 75, 15 (1972).
27. Philips, R.B. and McIntosh, D.C., TAPPI 58(2), 76 (1975).
28. Lewis, N.G. and Lantzy, T.R., in Adhesives from Renewable Resources, edited by Hemmingway, R.W., Conner, A.H. and Branham, S.J. (ACS Symposium Series 385, Washington, D.C., 1989) p. 13.
29. Glasser, W.G., in Adhesives from Renewable Resources, edited by Hemmingway, R.W., Conner, A.H. and Branham, S.J. (ACS Symposium Series 385, Washington, D.C., 1989) p. 43.

Lignins: Structure and Distribution in Wood and Pulp

  • John R. Obst (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed