Skip to main content Accessibility help

Joining Ceramics Using Microwave Energy

  • Iftikhar Ahmad (a1) and Richard Silberglitf (a1)


In the past several years there has been an explosive growth in the use of microwave energy for the processing of a host of materials. Microwave energy provides rapid internal heating which results in an overall reduction in the processing time. The important features of microwave processing are described, as well as several applications.

Microwave energy has been used by a few groups for the joining of alumina, mullite, silicon nitride and silicon carbide. The work performed by these groups will be reviewed. Typically, a single mode microwave applicator has been used to join ceramics at temperatures ranging between 1250°C - 1800°C. Microwave joining of ceramics was achieved in a matter of minutes, in contrast to hours reported by conventional methods. The strength of the joints was equal to or greater than the as-received materials. Joining of specimens of sintered silicon carbide (Hexoloy ™ ) using interlayers, and direct joining of reaction bonded silicon carbide (RBSC) to itself and Hexoloy™ has been accomplished recently. Both single mode and multimode microwave applicators were used and larger specimens of RBSC having complex shapes were joined using hybrid heating. The paper describes microwave joining apparatus, techniques and results.



Hide All
1. Osepchuk, J.M., A History of Microwave Heating Applications, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, MTT–32, (9), (1984).
2. Hippel, A.R. Von, Dielectric Materials and Applications, MIT Press and John Wiley & Sons, New York (1954).
3. Decareau, R.V. and Peterson, R.A., Microwave Processing and Engineering, Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, U.K., (1986).
4. Sutton, W.H., Brooks, M.H. and Chabinsky, I.J., Microwave Processing of Materials I, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 124, Pittsburgh, PA, (1988).
5. Snyder, W.B., Sutton, W.H., Iskander, M.F. and Johnson, D.L., Microwave Processing of Materials II, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 189, Pittsburgh, PA, (1991).
6. Clark, D.E., Gac, F.D. and Sutton, W.H., Microwaves: Theory and Application in Materials Processing, Ceram. Trans. 21, Westerville, OH, (1991).
7. Beatty, R.L., Sutton, W.H. and Iskander, M.F., Microwave Processing of Materials III, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 269, Pittsburgh, PA, (1992).
8. Lewis, D.A., Microwave Processing of Polymers - An Overview, p. 21, Ref. 7.
9. Iskander, M.F., Medical and Biological Applications of Electromagnetic Techniques – A relevant Experience to the Microwave Processing of Materials Research, p. 69, Ref. 4.
10. Rohrer, M.D. and Bulard, R.A., Microwave Sterilization of Dental Instruments and Hydrophilic Contact Lenses, Presented at the Microwave Processing of Materials Symposium, Spring Meeting of Materials Research Society, San Francisco, CA (1990).
11. Zygmont, J., Industry warms up to microwave ovens, High Technology, p. 62, March (1987).
12. Walkiewicz, J.W., McGill, S.L. and Moyer, L.A., Improved Grindability of Iron Ores using Microwave Energy, p. 297, Ref. 4.
13. Suzuki, J., Hosaka, M., Kawasaki, Y., Nishino, A. and Sogen, K., A Microwave Burning Processor for Waste Disposal, The Journal of Microwave Power & Electromagnetic Energy, 25, (3), 168 (1990).
14. Shibata, C. and Tamai, H., An improved Microwave Melting Furnace for Radioactive Wastes, The Journal of Microwave Power & Electromagnetic Energy, 25, (2), 81 (1990).
15. Varma, R., Nandi, S.P. and Katz, J.D., Detoxification of Hazardous Waste Streams Using Microwaveassisted Fluid-bed Oxidation, p. 67, Ref. 5.
16. Sutton, W.H., Microwave Processing of Ceramics - An Overview, p. 3, Ref. 7.
17. , A.S., Ahmad, I., Whitney, E.D. and Clark, D.E., Effect of Green Microstructure and Processing Variables on the Microwave Sintering of Alumina, p. 283, Ref. 5.
18. , A.S., Ahmad, I., Whitney, E.D. and Clark, D.E., Microwave (Hybrid) Heating of Alumina at 2.45 Ghz: I. Microstructural Uniformity and Homogeneity, p. 319, Ref. 6.
19. Sutton, W.H., Microwave processing of Ceramic Materials, Ceram. Bull. 68, No. 2, p. 376, (1989).
20. Meek, T.T. and Blake, R.D., Ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating, U.S. Patent No. 4,529,857. Ceramic-glass-metal seals by Microwave heating, U.S. Patent No. 4,529,856, (1985).
21. Fukushima, H., Yamanaka, T. and Matsui, M., Microwave Heating of Ceramics and its Application to Joining, p. 267, Ref. 4.
22. Palaith, D. and Silberglitt, R., Microwave Joining of Ceramics, Ceram. Bull. 68, (9), p. 1601, (1989).
23. Al-Assafi, S., Ahmad, I., Fathi, Z. and Clark, D.E., Microwave Joining of Ceramics, p. 515, Ref.6.
24. Yu, X. D., Varadan, V.V. and Varadan, V.K., Application of Microwave Processing to Simultaneous Sintering and Joining of ceramics, p. 497 Ref. 6.
25. Prochazka, S., Sintering of Silicon Carbide, p. 239 in Proc. Conf. Ceramics for High-Performance Applications, Eds. Burke, J.J., Gorum, A.E. and Katz, R.M., Brook Hill, (1975).
26. Iseki, T., Kameda, T. and Maruyama, T., Interfacial Reactions between SiC and Aluminum during Joining, Journal of Materials Science, 19, p. 1692, (1984).
27. Yiin, T-Y, Varadan, V.V. and Varadan, V.K., Microwave Joining of Si-SiC, p. 507, Ref. 6.
28. Silberglitt, R., Palaith, D., Black, W.M., Sa'adaldin, H.S., Katz, J.D. and Blake, R.D., Investigation of Inicrlayer Materials for the Microwave Joining of SiC, p. 487, Ref. 6.
29. Ahmad, I., Silberglitt, R., Black, W.M., Sa'adalddin, H.S. and Katz, J.D., Microwave Joining of Silicon Carbide using Several Different Approaches, p. 271, Ref. 7.
30. Sibold, J., Measurements made by Coors Ceramics Company, Golden, CO (Unpublished, private communication).

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Joining Ceramics Using Microwave Energy

  • Iftikhar Ahmad (a1) and Richard Silberglitf (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.