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Ion-Induced Growth of Whiskers on Sn Films

  • D. B. Poker (a1), J. Schubert (a2) and B. Stritzker (a2)

Abstract

Whiskers have been observed to form on thin films (1000–2000 Å) of Sn following implantation of 20-keV H or He at temperatures below 150 K. The morphology of the whiskers following growth was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to illuminate the possible growth modes. In an effort to obtain support for either of several models of the growth process, the region near the base of the whiskers was examined for evidence of depletion or extrusion. No evidence of depletion was observed. The whiskers could be classified into two types: those that were supported on pedestals, a short transition region at the base of the whisker; and those without pedestals, which rose abruptly from the film with no transition. A novel structure has been observed on Sn films that were coated with 500 Å of Au/Pd to enhance the SEM image. The structure consists of a thin, planar surface several microns in length, oriented perpendicular to the substrate. The structures did not appear immediately after coating, but were present after storage in air for one month.

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References

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1. Stritzker, B. and Ochmann, F., Nucl. Instrum. and Methods B7/8, 135 (1985).
2. Poker, D.B., Schubert, J., Alexandrou, A., Froehlingsdorf, J., and Stritzker, B., Nucl. Instrum. and Methods, in press.
3. Growth and Perfection in Crystals, Proceedings of the International Conference on Crystal Growth, Cooperstown, NY, 27–29 August 1958 (John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1958).
4. Carter, G., Nobes, M.J., and Whitton, J.L., Appl. Phys. A 38, 77 (1985); G.K. Wehner, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 1821 (1985); R. Thomas and R.W. Calabrese, Procee-d-ings of the 21st Annual Conference on Reliability Physics, Phoenix, Arizona, 5–7, 1983, p. 1.
5. Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy, eds. Goldstein, J.I. and Yakowitz, H., (Plenum Press, New York 1975) p. 55.

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