It is known that the interface between a refractory metal barrier and a dielectric material is stable against thermal treatment at a conventional IC interconnect processing temperature. However, the interface may not be stable against thermal and electrical stress called the bias temperature stress (BTS) at moderate conditions of 150 °C and 0.5 MV/cm. Massive refractory metal ions are seen to drift into low K dielectric materials that contain a mixture of organic and inorganic elements. It is argued that the oxidation of the metal at the interface creates unstable metal ions that are ready to drift into the dielectric film under an electric filed during the BTS test. Dielectric or dielectric capping materials that do not contain oxygen can prevent metal oxidation and are desirable to create a stable metal and dielectric interface.