Skip to main content Accessibility help

Influence of Structure on the Soft X-Ray Optical Properties of Metallic Multilayers

  • J. M. Slaughter (a1), Patrick A. Kearney (a1) and Charles M. Falco (a1)


Multilayer thin film structures for reflecting soft x-rays are now being fabricated in a number of laboratories. However, understanding of. the optical properties of these structures is presently limited by lack of knowledge of the microstructure of the layers, as well as of the details of the interfaces. In this paper we present results from our studies of multilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), characterized in situ by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and characterized ex situ by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction, and Rutherford back scattering (RBS). In the case of Mo/Si multilayers, we observe the formation of an amorphous interfacial silicide, which can have a positive effect on the performance of these evaporated multilayer mirrors. We observe a contraction in the period of these multilayers as the deposition temperature is raised from 50 °C to 250 °C, corresponding to an increase in the thickness of the interfacial silicide. This contraction indicates that the silicide is more dense than the average atomic density of its components. We also discuss Ag/B and Pd/B multilayers, which have very similar theoretical performance. However, due to differences in the multilayer structures formed, the actual performance of multilayers made from these materials is radically different. The structural differences originate from different growth modes for Ag and Pd on B.



Hide All
1. Shealy, D.L., Hoover, R.B., Barbee, T.W. Jr. and Walker, A.B.C. Jr., Opt. Eng. 29(7), 721727 (1990).
2. Sayre, D., Kirz, J., Feder, R., Kim, D.M. and Spiller, E., Science, 196(4296), 13391340 (1977).
3. Walker, A.B.C. Jr., Lindblom, J.F., Timothy, J.G., Barbee, T.W. Jr., Hoover, R.B. and Tandberg-Hanssen, E., Opt. Eng., 29(7), 698710 (1990).
4. Hawryluk, A.M. and Seppala, L.G., J. Vac. Sd. Technol. B, 6(6), 21622166 (1988).
5. Anderson, E.H., in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy, edited by Hoover, R.B., (Proc. SPIE 1160, Bellingham, WA 1989) pp. 211.
6. Michette, A.G., Optical Systems for Soft X-Rays, (Plenum, New York, NY 1986), p. 165.
7. Slaughter, J.M., Burkland, M.K., Kearney, P.A., Lampis, A.R., Milanovic, Z., Schulze, D.W., Roberts, J.R., Kerner, J., Saloman, E.B. and Falco, C.M., X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Microscopy edited by Hoover, Richard B. (Proc. SPIE 1160, Bellingham, WA 1989) pp. 235244.
8. Ogura, S., Niibe, M., Watanabe, Y., Hayashida, M. and lizuka, T., X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers edited by Christensen, Finn E., (Proc. SPIE 984 Bellingham, WA 1988) pp. 140148.
9. Rosenbluth, A.E. and Forsyth, J.M. in Low energy x-ray diagnostics, edited by Attwood, D.T. and Henke, B.L. (AlP proceedings 75, New York, NY 1981) pp. 280285.
10. Spiller, E., Opt. Eng., 29(6), 609613 (1990).
11. Freund, A. K., de Bergevin, F., Marot, G., Riekel, C., Susini, J., Zhang, L., and Ziegler, E., Optical Engineering 29(8), 928941 (1990).
12. Barbee, T.W. Jr., Mrowka, S., and Hettrick, M.C., Applied Optics 24(6), 883886 (1985).
13. Kearney, P.A., Slaughter, J.M. and Falco, C.M. in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy, Microscopy. Polarimetry and Projection Lithography edited by Hoover, R.B. and Walker, A.B.C. Jr. (Proceedings SPIE 1343, Bellingham, WA 1990) pp. 2531.
14. Beckmann, P. and Spizzichino, A., The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, Oxford, 1963).
15. James, R. W., The Optical Principles of the Diffraction of X-Rays (Ox Bow press, Woodbridge, Conn. 1982) p. 22.
16. Spiller, Eberhard and Rosenbluth, Alan E., Optical Engineering 2, 954 (1986).
17. Vidal, B. and Vincent, P., Applied Optics 23, 1794 (1984).
18. Henke, B.L., Davis, J.C., Gullikson, E.M. and Perera, R.C.C., A preliminary report on x-ray photoabsorption coefficients and atomic scattering factors for 92 elements in the 10-10,000 eV region LBL-26259 UC-411 (Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA Nov, 1988), and to be published in Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables.
19. Sevenhans, W., Gijs, M., Bruynseraede, Y., Homma, H. and Schuller, I.K., Phys. Rev. B 3, pp. 59555958 (1986).
20. Locquet, J.P., Neerinck, D., Stockman, L., Bruynseraede, Y. and Schuller, I.K., Phys. Rev. B 39 pp. 1333813343 (1989).
21. Fullerton, E.E., Vanderstraeten, H., Bruynseraede, Y. and Schuller, I.K., Phys. Rev., to be published.
22. Steams, D.G., J. Appl. Phys. 65, 491 (1989).
23. Perkin Elmer Physical Electronics, Eden Prairie, MN, USA.
24. Inficon Leybold-Heraeus, Inc., East Syracuse, NY, USA.
25. Schulze, Dean W., Slaughter, J. M. and Falco, Charles M., in X-Ray Multilayers for Diffractometers, Monochromators, and Spectrometers edited by Christensen, Finn E. (Proc. SPIE 984, Bellingham, WA, 1988) pp.7581.
26. Model RVL 8–120, Princeton Research Instruments, Princeton, NJ, USA.
27. Slaughter, J.M., Kearney, P.A., Schulze, D.W., Falco, C.M., Hills, C.R., Saloman, E.B. and Watts, R.N., in X-Ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy, Microscopy. Polarimetry and Projection Lithography edited by Hoover, R.B. and Walker, A.B.C. Jr. (Proc. SPIE 1343, Bellingham, WA 1990). pp. 7382.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed