From electron-irriadiation studies, it is known that point defects can strongly affect the electrical properties of GaAs-based MESFET's, MODFET's, solar cells, resonant-tunneling diodes, MIMIC circuits and other devices. As an example, 1 × 1016 cm−2, 1 MeV electrons reduce the transconductance in a 1 μm by 200 μm MESFET by nearly an order of magnitude. Fortunately, annealing at 350 °C for 10 min. can largely restore the device performance, although not without some adverse effects. Point defects, or simple point defect complexes, can also exist in as-grown GaAs and affect devices in several different ways. For example, an As-rich stoichiometry can lead to an abundance of Ga vacancies, and thus to a higher Si donor activation in implanted MESFET devices; however, it can also promote an increase in unwanted impurities which sit on the Ga site. As another example, extremely high (> 3 × 1019 cm−3 ) concentrations of As arntisites, which are found in MBE GaAs grown at 200°C, lead to very unusual electrical and optical properties, and make possible a highly useful buffer material anid a very fast photoconductive switch. However, there are also adverse effects here, such as slow-transients in some MODFET devices, which may result from defect diffusion. Thus, the effects of point defects in GaAs devices must be understood.