Damage in a continuous, aligned-fiber SiC/Al metal matrix composite (MMC), e.g. fiber fracture, fiber-matrix interphase microcracking, intra-ply matrix voids and cracks, is examined with synchrotron x-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM). Quantitative three-dimensional measurements of damage are reported in as-fabricated and monotonically loaded SiC/Al. The XTM results indicate that increases in observed macroscopic structural stiffness during the first few fatigue cycles of an MMC coupon correspond to elimination of processing-related matrix porosity and to displacement of the fibers from a somewhat irregular arrangement into a more nearly hexagonal array. The XTM data also show that the carbon cores of the SiC fibers begin to fail at or below 828 MPa, that is, at loads far less than those for fracture of the entire fiber. The implications of these results and of the use of in situ loading for fatigue damage quantification are also discussed for mechanical/thermal modelling.