Thin-film polysilicon solar cells are a promising low-cost alternative for bulk silicon solar cells. Due to their reduced material thickness, these solar cells are less dependent on the silicon feedstock price. Until now these devices showed a worse performance compared to bulk Si solar cells due to the small grain size and the high recombination velocity at the grain boundaries. A better understanding of hydrogen passivation is therefore of crucial importance to improve the efficiency of polysilicon solar cells. In this work we characterized fine-grained polysilicon layers with a grain size of only 0.2 μm before and after passivation. Plasma hydrogenation led to a higher hydrogen concentration in the first micron of the layer than nitride passivation. The highest efficiency of 5.0 % was reached when nitride passivation was followed by plasma passivation.