Hybrid piezoelectric composites were obtained by embedding barium titanate (BTO) nanofibers into a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix. Green BTO fibers were obtained by electrospinning a precursor polymeric solution under an electric field of 1 kV/cm. A network of non-woven ceramic BTO fibers was obtained after calcination of the green fibers. A PVDF solution was deposited over the ceramic fibers by spin-coating and then subjected to a low temperature heat treatment, to evaporate the solvent and promote the crystallization of the polar beta phase of PVDF.
In average, the diameter of the ceramic fibers ranged from 105 to 225 nm, presenting ribbon-like shape in some cases. Crystalline phases of BTO and PVDF were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Polarization hysteresis curves revealed a ferroelectric behavior in all samples.