- Cited by 26
Besser, Paul R. Marieb, Thomas N. and Bravman, John C. 1993. Strain Relaxation and In-Situ Observation of Voiding in Passivated Aluminum alloy Lines. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 309, Issue. ,
Besser, Paul R. Mack, Anne Sauter Fraser, David and Bravman, John C. 1993. X-ray Determination and Finite-Element Modeling of Stress in Passivated Al-0.5%Cu Lines During Thermal Cycling.. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 309, Issue. ,
Vinci, Richard P. Marieb, Thomas N. and Bravman, John C. 1993. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Strains and Voiding in Passivated copper Metallizations. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 309, Issue. ,
Niehof, J. Flinn, P. A. and Maloney, T. J. 1993. Electromigration early resistance increase measurements. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, Vol. 9, Issue. 4, p. 295.
Vinci, Richard P. Marieb, Thomas N. and Bravman, John C. 1993. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Strains and Voiding in Passgvated Copper Metallizations. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 308, Issue. ,
Kawanoue, T. Kaneko, H. Hasunuma, M. and Miyauchi, M. 1993. Electromigration‐induced void growth in bamboo structures. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 74, Issue. 7, p. 4423.
Besser, Paul R. Marieb, Thomas N. and Bravman, John C. 1993. Strain Relaxation and In-Situ Observation of Voiding in Passivated Aluminum Alloy Lines.. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 308, Issue. ,
Marieb, T. Bravman, J. C. Flinn, P. Gardner, D. S. and Madden, M. 1994. Observation of voids induced by mechanical stress and electromigration in passivated Al lines deposited at different purity levels. Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 64, Issue. 18, p. 2424.
Arzt, E. Kraft, O. Nix, W. D. and Sanchez, J. E. 1994. Electromigration failure by shape change of voids in bamboo lines. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 76, Issue. 3, p. 1563.
Arzt, E. Kraft, O. and MÖckl, U.E. 1994. Electromigration Damage in Conductor Lines: Recent Progress in Microscopic Observation and Mechanistic Modelling. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 338, Issue. ,
Kraft, O. Möckl, U. E. and Arzt, E. 1995. Shape changes of voids in bamboo lines: A new electromigration failure mechanism. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, Vol. 11, Issue. 4, p. 279.
Marieb, T. Flinn, P. Bravman, J. C. Gardner, D. and Madden, M. 1995. Observations of electromigration induced void nucleation and growth in polycrystalline and near‐bamboo passivated Al lines. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 78, Issue. 2, p. 1026.
Maroudas, Dimitrios and Pantelides, Sokrates T. 1995. Theory and Computer Simulation of Grain-Boundary and Void Dynamics in Polycrystalline Conductors. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 391, Issue. ,
Maroudas, Dimitrios Enmark, Matthew N. Leibig, Cora M. and Pantelides, Sokrates T. 1996. Analysis of damage formation and propagation in metallic thin films under the action of thermal stresses and electric fields. Journal of Computer-Aided Materials Design, Vol. 2, Issue. 3, p. 231.
Doan, Jonathan C. Bravman, John C. Flinn, Paul A. and Marieb, Thomas N. 1998. A Quantitative Study of Void Nucleation Times in Passivated Aluminum Interconnects. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 516, Issue. ,
Manca, J.V Croes, K De Ceuninck, W D'Haeger, V D'Haen, J Depauw, P Tielemans, L and De Schepper, L 1998. Localized monitoring of electromigration with early resistance change measurements. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 38, Issue. 4, p. 641.
Schimschak, M. and Krug, J. 1998. Electromigration-Induced Breakup of Two-Dimensional Voids. Physical Review Letters, Vol. 80, Issue. 8, p. 1674.
Lee, Samantha Bravman, John C. Flinn, Paul A. and Marieb, Tom N. 1998. The Effects of Passivation Thickness and Initial Aluminum Line Stress on Electromigration Behavior. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 516, Issue. ,
Doan, Jonathan C. Bravman, John C. Flinn, Paul A. and Marieb, Thomas N. 1999. A Detailed Study of Void Motion In Passivated Aluminum Interconnects. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 563, Issue. ,
D’Haen, J. Cosemans, P. Manca, J.V. Lekens, G. Martens, T. De Ceuninck, W. D’Olieslaeger, M. De Schepper, L. and Maex, K. 1999. Dynamics of electromigration induced void/hillock growth and precipitation/dissolution of addition elements studied by in-situ scanning electron microscopy resistance measurements. Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. 39, Issue. 11, p. 1617.
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Using a 120 kV STEM equipped with a backscattered electron detector and operated as a conventional SEM. voids in metal lines can be detected through 1 μm of passivation. By applying current to passivated thin metal lines while in the microscope, voids can be observed while electromigration is in progress. Voids move significant distances during electromigration. On at least some occasions. failure of the line is not the result of a void growing until the width of the line is reached. On these occasions, when the size of the void approaches the width of the line. the void breaks up into smaller voids.
Hide All1. Ainslie, N. G., d'Heurle, F. M., and Wells, O. C.. Appl. Phys. Lett. 20. 173 (1972).2. Castaño, E., Maiz, J., Flinn, P., and Madden, M., Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 129 (1991).3. Besser, P., Madden, M., Flinn, P., submitted to J. Appl. Phys.4. Levine, E. and Kitcher, J., Proceedings of the 22nd Annual IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, USA (1984). p. 242.
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