We report that C60 nanorods of three polymeric phases have been synthesized under high pressure and high temperature and that the photoluminescence properties of these polymeric nanorods also have been studied. C60 nanorods were fabricated by a facile solution evaporation method. Raman spectra indicate that this material transformed into orthorhombic, tetragonal and rhombohedral polymeric phases under various high pressure and high temperature conditions. SEM measurements show that the shape of the nanorods can be kept under quasi-hydrostatic pressure condition. The photoluminescence intensity of the polymeric C60 nanorods has been enhanced compared with that of the pristine C60 nanorods. The main fluorescence band shifted from 1.70 eV in the monomeric phase to near infrared in the polymeric phase when pressure and temperature were increased. The enhanced fluorescence with adjustable frequency for different polymeric C60 nanorods makes possible potential application in luminescent nanomaterials.