- Cited by 32
Feenstra, K. F. Alkemade, P. F. A. Algra, E. Schropp, R. E. I. and van der Weg, W. F. 1999. Effect of post-deposition treatments on the hydrogenation of hot-wire deposited amorphous silicon films. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 7, Issue. 5, p. 341.
Wang, Qi Iwaniczko, Eugene Xu, Yueqin Nelson, Brent P. and Mahan, A. H. 1999. Assessment of Intrinsic-Layer Growth Temperature to High-Deposition-Rate a-Si:H n-i-p Solar Cells Deposited by Hot-Wire CVD. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 557, Issue. ,
Wang, Qi Iwaniczko, Eugene Xu, Yueqin Gao, Wei Nelson, Brent P. Mahan, A.H. Crandall, R.S. and Branz, Howard M. 2000. Efficient 18 Å/s Solar Cells with All Silicon Layers Deposited by Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 609, Issue. ,
Qi Wang Iwaniczko, E. Yueqin Xu Nelson, B.P. Mahan, A.H. Crandall, R.S. and Branz, H.M. 2000. Efficient high-deposition-rate all-hot-wire hydrogenated amorphous silicon n-i-p solar cells. p. 717.
Schröder, B and Bauer, S 2000. Some indications of different film forming radicals in a-Si:H deposition by the glow discharge and thermocatalytic CVD processes. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 266-269, Issue. , p. 115.
Mahan, A. H. Mason, A. Nelson, B. P. and Gallagher, A. C. 2000. The Influence of W Filament Alloying on the Electronic Properties of Hwcvd Deposited a-Si:H Films. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 609, Issue. ,
Weber, U. Middya, A.R. Mukherjee, C. and Schroeder, B. 2000. Amorphous silicon based tandem solar cells entirely fabricated by hot-wire CVD. p. 908.
Wang, Qi Iwaniczko, Eugene Yang, Jeffrey Lord, Kenneth and Guha, Subhendu 2001. High Quality Amorphous Silicon Germanium Alloy Solar Cells Made by Hot-wire CVD at 10 Å/s. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 664, Issue. ,
Ledermann, Andrea Weber, Urban Mukherjee, Chandrachur and Schroeder, Bernd 2001. Influence of gas supply and filament geometry on the large-area deposition of amorphous silicon by hot-wire CVD. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 395, Issue. 1-2, p. 61.
Brühne, K. Schubert, M.B. Köhler, C. and Werner, J.H. 2001. Nanocrystalline silicon from hot-wire deposition — a photovoltaic material?. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 395, Issue. 1-2, p. 163.
Fritzsche, Hellmut 2001. Development in Understanding and Controlling the Staebler-Wronski Effect in a-Si:H. Annual Review of Materials Research, Vol. 31, Issue. 1, p. 47.
Mukherjee, C Weber, U Seitz, H and Schröder, B 2001. Growth of device quality p-type μc-Si:H films by hot-wire CVD for a-Si pin and c-Si heterojunction solar cells. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 395, Issue. 1-2, p. 310.
Mahan, A. H. Xu, Y. Iwaniczko, E. Williamson, D. L. Beyer, W. Perkins, J. D. Vanecek, M. Gedvilas, L. M. and Nelson, B. P. 2001. Films and Devices Deposited by Hwcvd at Ultra High Deposition Rates. MRS Proceedings, Vol. 664, Issue. ,
Mahan, A. H. Xu, Y. Williamson, D. L. Beyer, W. Perkins, J. D. Vanecek, M. Gedvilas, L. M. and Nelson, B. P. 2001. Structural properties of hot wire a-Si:H films deposited at rates in excess of 100 Å/s. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, Issue. 10, p. 5038.
Kessels, W. M. M. Severens, R. J. Smets, A. H. M. Korevaar, B. A. Adriaenssens, G. J. Schram, D. C. and van de Sanden, M. C. M. 2001. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited at very high growth rates by an expanding Ar–H2–SiH4 plasma. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 89, Issue. 4, p. 2404.
Goerigk, G. and Williamson, D. L. 2001. Comparative anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering study of hotwire and plasma grown amorphous silicon–germanium alloys. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, Issue. 11, p. 5808.
Schroeder, Bernd Weber, Urban Seitz, Holger Ledermann, Andrea and Mukherjee, Chandrachur 2001. Current status of the thermo-catalytic (hot-wire) CVD of thin silicon films for photovoltaic applications. Thin Solid Films, Vol. 395, Issue. 1-2, p. 298.
Niikura, C Poissant, Y Gueunier, M.E Kleider, J.P and Bourée, J.E 2002. Transport properties of hot-wire CVD μc-Si:H layers for solar cells. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Vol. 299-302, Issue. , p. 1179.
Qi Wang Iwaniczko, E. Yang, J. Lord, K. Guha, S. Wang, S. and Daxing Han 2002. Wide-gap thin film Si n-i-p solar cells deposited by hot-wire CVD. p. 1222.
Pflüger, A Mukherjee, C and Schröder, B 2002. Optimization of process parameters in a large-area hot-wire CVD reactor for the deposition of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) for solar cell application with highly uniform material quality. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 73, Issue. 3, p. 321.
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Hydrogen out-diffusion from the n/i interface region plays a major role in controlling the fill factor (FF) and resultant efficiency of n-i-p a-Si:H devices, with the i-layer deposited at high substrate temperatures by the hot wire technique. Modeling calculations show that a thin, highly defective layer at this interface, perhaps caused by significant H out-diffusion and incomplete lattice reconstruction, results in sharply lower device FF's due to the large voltage dropped across this defective layer. One approach to this problem is to introduce trace dopant tailing to ‘compensate’ these defects, but the resultant cells exhibit a poor red response. A second approach involves the addition of buffer layers designed to retard this out-diffusion. We find that an increased H content, either in the n-layer or a thin intrinsic low temperature buffer layer, does not significantly retard this out-diffusion, as observed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) H profiles on devices. All these devices have a defect-rich i-layer region near the n/i interface and a poor device efficiency. However, if this low temperature buffer layer is thick enough, the outdiffusion is minimized, yielding nearly flat H profiles and a much improved device performance. We discuss this behavior in the context of the H chemical potentials and H diffusion coefficients in the high temperature, buffer, n-, and stainless steel (SS) substrate layers. The chemical potential differences between the layers control the direction of the H flow and the respective diffusion coefficients, which depend upon many factors such as the local electronic Fermi energy and the extent of the H depletion, determine the rate. Finally, we report a 9.8% initial active area device, fabricated at 16Å/s, using the insights obtained in this study.
Hide All1) Mahan, A. H. and Vanecek, M., AlP Conf. Proc. 234, 211 (1991).2) Wu, Y., Stephen, J. T., Han, D. X., Rutland, J. M., Crandall, R. S., and Mahan, A. H., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2049 (1996).3) Mahan, A. H., Williamson, D. L., and Furtak, T. E., MRS Symp. Proc. 467, 657 (1997).4) Liu, X., White, B. E. Jr., Pohl, R. O., Iwaniczko, E., Jones, K. M., Mahan, A. H., Nelson, B. N., Crandall, R. S., and Veprek, S., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4418 (1997).5) Mahan, A. H., Carapella, J. C., and Gallagher, A. C., U.S. Patent 5,397,737 (1995).6) Unold, T., Reedy, R. C. Jr., and Mahan, A. H., 17th ICAMS, Budapest, 1997, to appear in J. non-Cryst. Sol. (1998).7) Mahan, A. H., Iwaniczko, E., Nelson, B. P., Reedy, R. C. Jr., Unold, T., Crandall, R. S., Guha, S., and Yang, J., AIP Conf. Proc. 394, 27 (1996).8) Upon investigation, we found that wide variations in our gas purging procedure, from a weekend pump to a 5 min purge between the HW n- and I-W i-layer depositions, made little difference in either the SIMS P profiles or the device FF's, leading us to conclude that we had inadequate “burial” of the P on the chamber walls before the i-layer deposition, due to the geometry of the shutter used for device fabrication.9) Kusian, W., Kruhler, W., and Bullemer, B., Proc. 19th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., 577 (1987).10) Street, R. A., Phys Rev B, 43, 2454 (1991).11) Carlson, D. E. and Magee, C. W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 81 (1978).12) Pemg, T.-P. and Altstetter, C. J., Acta. Metall. 34, 1771 (1986).13) Beyer, W. and Zastrow, U., Proc. MRS Symp. 420, 497 (1996).14) Yang, J., private communication.15) Based upon optical pyrometer measurements, filament currents of 14A and 16A correspond to approximate filament temperatures of 1930°C and 2100°C respectively.16) Bauer, S., Herbst, W., Schroeder, B., and Oechsner, H., Proc. 26th IEEE PV Spec. Conf., 719 (1997).17) Jones, S. (private communication) reports an initial η of 10.6% for an a-Si:H device using the VHF-GD deposition technique, at deposition rates of Å/s.
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