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Grain Boundary Characteristics and Stress-induced Damage Morphologies in Sputtered and Electroplated Copper Films

  • Hyun Park (a1), Soo-Jung Hwang (a1), Kyu Hwan Oh (a1) and Young-Chang Joo (a1)


Various Cu films were fabricated using sputtering and electroplating with and without additive, and their surface damages after annealing were investigated. After annealing at 435°C, the difference between damage morphologies of the films was observed. In some films stressinduced grooves along the grain boundaries were observed, while in the others voids at the grain boundary triple junctions were observed. It was also observed that the stress-induced groove was formed along the high energy grain boundaries. To explain the morphological difference of surface damages, a simple parameter considering the contributions of grain structures and grain boundary characteristics to surface and grain boundary diffusions is suggested. The effective grain boundary area, which is a function of grain size, film thickness and the fraction of high energy grain boundaries, played a key role in the morphological difference.



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