This work investigates the factors that affect the mechanical properties of Cu/electroless Ni-P/Sn-3.5Ag solder joints. For the investigation, solder joints were tensile tested after solid-state aging at different temperatures for various durations. Several factors, such as the growth of interfacial compounds (IFCs), Ni3Sn4 morphology, the accumulation of spalled Ni3Sn4 intermetallic particles at the solder/Ni3Sn4 interface, and the formation of Kirkendall voids at the Ni3P/Cu interface, are found to deteriorate the mechanical properties of the joints. Among all these factors, the formation of a layer of Kirkendall voids at the Ni3P/Cu interface, which is a result of Cu diffusion from the interface, causes the most severe decrease in tensile strength with a brittle fracture at the Ni3P/Cu interface. This layer of Kirkendall voids remains the main cause of brittle failure even after the transformation of the Ni3P layer into a Ni-Sn-P layer.