Skip to main content Accessibility help

Fabrication of MEMS Tonpilz Transducers

  • Q. F. Zhou (a1), L.-P. Wang (a1), G. Gerber (a2), R. Meyer (a3), D. Van Tol (a3), S. Tadigadapa (a1), W. J. Hughes (a3) and S. Trolier-McKinstry (a1)...


Tonpilz transducers consist of a heavy tail mass, a piezoelectric spring, and a light head mass. Miniaturized tonpilz transducers are potentially interesting for the 10 to100 MHz frequency range in imaging transducers due to their high efficiency and output capabilities. Piezoelectric thin films can be used as the active element in the construction of miniaturized tonpilz structures. A 4-10 νm film is necessary for the mass-spring-mass system to resonate at these high frequencies. In this work, fabrication and characterization of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films on conductive oxide LaNiO3 (LNO) coated silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates will be reported for this application. First, conductive LNO thin films, approximately 300 nm in thickness, were grown on SOI substrates by a metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method. The room temperature resistivity of the LNO was 6.5×10-4 ωcm. Randomly oriented PZT (52/48) films up to 7 νm thick were then deposited using a sol-gel process on the LNO coated SOI substrates. 20 mol.% excess lead was added to the solutions to compensate for lead volatilization during film heat treatments. PZT films with LNO bottom electrodes showed good dielectric and ferroelectric properties. The dielectric permittivity (at 1 kHz) was over 1000. The remanent polarization of PZT films was larger than 26 νC/cm2. The e31,f coefficient of PZT thick films was larger than –6.5 C/m2 when poled at -75 kV/cm for 15 minutes. A silver layer approximately 40 νm thick was screen- printed onto the PZT film to form the tail mass of the tonpilz structure. Elements were diced and the bulk silicon was removed by dry and wet-etching methods to leave the p-type silicon layer as tonpilz head mass. Fabrication of MEMS tonpilz microstructures will also be presented.



Hide All
1. Bernstein, J. J., Finberg, S. L., Houston, K., Cross, L. E. et al. , IEEE Transducers on Ferroelectric and Frequency Control, 44, 960 (1997)
2. Lukacs, M., Sayer, M., Knapik, D., Candelaa, R. and Foster, F. S., 1996 IEEE Ultrasonics Syposium, 901 (1996).
3. Zhou, Q. F., Chan, H. L. W. and Choy, C. L., Thin Solid Films, 375, 95 (2000).
4. Sugiyama, S., Takagi, A. and Tsuzuki, K., Jap. J. Appl. Phys., 30, 2170 (1991).
5. Barrow, D. A., Petroff, T. E. and Sayer, M., Surface and Coating Technology, 76, 113 (1995).
6. Chen, H. D., Udayakumar, K. R., Gaskey, C. J. and Cross, L. E., J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 79, 2189 (1996).
7. Kurchania, R. and Milne, S.J., J. Mater.Res., 14, 1852 (1999).
8. Hunt, F.V., Electroacoustics: The analysis of transduction, and its historical background, American Institute of physics, college park, MD, 1982.
9. Tol, D. Van, Hughes, W. J., Proceeding of the SPIE on ultrasonic transducer engineering, 3664, 161 (1999).
10. Krimholtz, R., Leedom, D. A., Matthaei, G. L., Electronics Letters, 6, 398 (1970).
11. Zhou, Q. F., Hong, E., Wolf, R., and Trolier-McKinstry, S., Materials Research Society Symposium proceedings. Vol.655, 2000 Fall Meeting (Boston), Ferroelectric thin films.
12. Shepard, J. F. Jr., Moses, P. J., and Trolier-McKinstry, S. S., Sensors and Actuators A 71, 133 (1998).
13. Chen, S. Y., J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 81, 97 (1998).
14. Zhang, Z.S., M. S. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 2000.
15. Shephard, F. Jr., Xu, F., Kanno, I., and Trolier-McKinstry, S., J. Appl. Phys., 85, 6711 (1999).

Fabrication of MEMS Tonpilz Transducers

  • Q. F. Zhou (a1), L.-P. Wang (a1), G. Gerber (a2), R. Meyer (a3), D. Van Tol (a3), S. Tadigadapa (a1), W. J. Hughes (a3) and S. Trolier-McKinstry (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed