Carbon steel is one of the candidate materials for overpacks for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Japan. Passivation behavior and corrosion rate of carbon steel were investigated by electrochemical measurements under simulated repository conditions. The results of the anodic polarization measurements showed that carbon steel was hard to passivate in highly compacted bentonite. Therefore, general corrosion seems to be most probable in repository conditions. In order to monitor the in-situ general corrosion rate in compacted bentonite, the AC impedance of carbon steel was measured under aerated conditions. It was confirmed that the corrosion rate in saturated bentonite decreased with time and it was almost the same as that observed in deaerated aqueous conditions. The corrosion rate did not increase in the presence of corrosion products formed by external current supply.