Skip to main content Accessibility help

Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects

  • Steve Kilgore (a1), Craig Gaw (a1), Haldane Henry (a1), Darrell Hill (a1) and Dieter Schroder (a1)...


Electromigration tests were performed on passivated electroplated Au four terminal Kelvin line structures using the conventional in situ resistance monitoring technique. The stress conditions were a current density of 2.0 MA/cm2 with ambient temperatures ranging from 325°C to 375°C. The temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) values were measured prior to current stressing to calculate the Joule heated film temperatures. The times to failure (lifetimes) for the Au line structures were considered as a 50% ΔR/R0 change. The median time to failure (t50%) was plotted against the inverse film temperature to determine the activation energy value as 0.59 ± 0.09 eV. Failure analysis of void location and suggested diffusion mechanism will be discussed.



Hide All
1. Penney, R.V., “Current-induced Mass Transport in Aluminum,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids, Vol. 25, p335345 (1964).
2. Black, J.R., “Mass Transport of Aluminum by Momentum Exchange with Conducting Electrons,” Proc. 1967 Annual Symposium on Reliability Physics, IEEE Catalog 7-15C58 (1967).
3. Ghate, P. B., “Some Observations on the Electromigration in Aluminum Films,” Appl. Phys. Letters, Vol. 11, p1416 (1967).
4. Blech, I.A. and Meieran, E.S., “Direct Transmission Electron Microscope Observation of Electrotransport in Aluminum Thin Films,” Appl. Phys. Letters, Vol. 11, p263266 (1967).
5. Rosenberg, R. and Berenbaum, L., “Resistance Monitoring and Effects of Nonadhesion during Electromigration in Aluminum Films,” Appl. Phys. Letters, Vol. 12, p201204 (1968).
6. Black, J.R., “Electromigration – A Brief Survey and Some Recent Results,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. ED-16, No. 4, p338347 (April 1969).
7. Black, J.R., “Electromigration Failure Modes in Aluminum Metallization for Semiconductor Devices,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 57, No. 9, p1587–94 (1969).
8. Huntington, H.B. and Grone, A.R., “Current-induced marker motion in gold wires,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 20, p7687 (1961).
9. Hauschildt, M., Gall, M., Thrasher, S., Justison, P., Michaelson, L., Hernandez, R., Kawasaki, H. and Ho, P.S., “Statistical Analysis of Electromigration Lifetimes and Void Evolution for Cu InterconnectsProceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena, AIP Conference Proceedings 741, p112123 (2004).
10. Blech, I.A. and Meieran, E.S., “Electromigration in Thin Al Films,” J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 40, No. 2 p485491 (1969).
11. Sigsbee, R.A., “Electromigration and Metalization Lifetimes,” J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 44, No. 6, p25332550 (1973).
12. Blech, A., “Electromigration in Thin Aluminum Films on Titanium Nitride,” J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 47, p12031208 (1976).
13. Etzion, M., Blech, I.A., and Komem, Y., “Study of conductive gold film lifetime under high current densities,” J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 46, p14551458 (1975).
14. Hummel, R.E. and Geier, H.J., “Activation energy for electrotransport in thin silver and gold films,” Thin Solid Films, Vol. 25, p335342 (1975).
15. Tai, K.L. and Ohring, M., “Grain boundary electromigration in thin films II. Tracer measurements in pure Au,” J. Appl. Phys. Vol. 48, p3645 (1977).
16. Weast, R.C., editor, Handbook Chemistry and Physics 60th edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pF171 (1979).

Electromigration of Electroplated Gold Interconnects

  • Steve Kilgore (a1), Craig Gaw (a1), Haldane Henry (a1), Darrell Hill (a1) and Dieter Schroder (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed