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Electromigration and Diffusion in Pure Cu And Cu(Sn) Alloys

  • C.-K. Hu (a1), K. L. Lee (a1), D. Gupta (a1), P. Blauner (a1) and T. J. Watson (a2)...

Abstract

Atom movements of Cu in pure Cu and Cu(0.5 to 2 wt.% Sn) alloys have been investigated using drift velocity and radioactive tracer techniques. The void growth rate in pure Cu at the cathode end, as a result of electromigration driving force, linearly increases with the applied current density. A marked decrease in the Cu grain boundary diffusivity and electromigration drift velocity is attributed to Sn trapping of Cu atoms and/or binding defects at grain boundaries. The effect is more pronounced at lower temperatures. The activation energies for electromigration and diffusion of Cu in pure Cu grain boundaries were found to be in the range of 0.7 – 0.9 eV. Addition of about 0.5 to 2 wt.% Sn increased these energies to 1.1 – 1.3 eV, respectively which resulted in enhancement of electromigration resistance by several orders of magnitude over that in pure Cu at the field operation temperature.

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