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Effect of Annealing on the Structural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Electroplated Cu Thin Films

  • P. Shukla (a1), A. K. Sikder (a1), P.B. Zantye (a1), Ashok Kumar (a1) and M. Sanganaria (a1)...

Abstract

The increasing demand for faster and more reliable integrated circuits (ICs) has promoted the integration of Copper-based metallization. Electroplated Cu films demonstrate a microstructural transition at room temperature, known as self annealing. In this paper we intend to investigate the annealing behavior of electroplated Cu films grown on a seed Cu layer on top of the barrier layers over a single crystal silicon substrate. All the samples were undergone through a multistep annealing process. Grazing incident x-ray diffraction pattern shows stronger x-ray reflections from Cu (111) and (220) planes but weaker reflections from (200), (311) and (222) planes in all the electroplated Cu samples. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on the cross section of the samples and the diffraction pattern showed the crystalline behavior of both seed layer and electroplated Cu. Nanoindentation was performed on all the samples using the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique and it was found that the elastic modulus varies from 110 to 130 GPa while the hardness varies from 1 to 1.6 GPa depending on the annealing conditions. The tribological properties of all the copper films were also measured using the Bench Top CMP tester. Subsequently, Nanoindentation was performed on the samples after polishing the top surface in order to investigate the work hardening and an increase in hardness and modulus was observed. Finite Element Modeling was performed in order to investigate the stress behavior during nanoindentation.

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Effect of Annealing on the Structural, Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Electroplated Cu Thin Films

  • P. Shukla (a1), A. K. Sikder (a1), P.B. Zantye (a1), Ashok Kumar (a1) and M. Sanganaria (a1)...

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