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Dopant Activation in bulk germanium and Germanium-on-Insulator

  • Y.-L. Chao (a1), S. Prussin (a1), J. C. S. Woo (a1) and R. Scholz (a2)

Abstract

High levels of electrical activation of both p- and n-type dopants are realized by pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) in bulk germanium wafers and germanium-on-insulator (GOI) substrates. In bulk germanium, p-type dopant yields an electrical activated concentration of 1.5×1020 /cm3 after a 400°C rapid thermal annealing (RTA), which is one order higher than obtained for samples without PAI. N-type dopants also show comparable improvement as 1×1020 /cm3 after 600°C RTA. Both results are the highest ever being reported and are sufficient for advanced CMOS applications. PAI was also employed in dopant activation for GOI substrates. Carrier concentrations of 6×1020 /cm3 and 5×1019 /cm3 were observed for p- and n-type dopants respectively after identical RTA conditions as for bulk germanium counterparts. Hydrogen incorporated in GOI wafers which were prepared by Smart-Cut™ approach may be responsible for the discrepancy of activated concentrations between bulk germanium and GOI. Nevertheless, PAI shows the promise of dopant activation in germanium and can be readily adopted in current CMOS processes.

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Dopant Activation in bulk germanium and Germanium-on-Insulator

  • Y.-L. Chao (a1), S. Prussin (a1), J. C. S. Woo (a1) and R. Scholz (a2)

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