Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Differences Between Sonically and Mechanically Determined Elastic Moduli of Paper

  • George L. Batten (a1)


This paper examines the differences between sonically- and mechanically-determined paper elastic moduli. Four factors are examined for their contributions to observed differences. Two factors, thermodynamics and the low frequency approximation, relate to the sonic method; the other two factors, load cell stiffness and paper viscoelasticity, relate to the mechanical method. When all four factors are given proper consideration, the differences between the two methods are reduced to the order of experimental error. Quantitative relationships between the two moduli are given.



Hide All
1. Mann, R. W., Baum, G. A., and Habeger, C. C., Tappi J. 63(2): 163 (1980).
2. Mann, R. W., Ph.D. Thesis, The Institute of Paper Chemistry (1979).
3. Callen, H. B., “Thermodynamics,” Wiley, New York, 1960, Chapter 13.
4. Gammon, P. H., Kiefte, H., and Clouter, M. J., J. Phys. Chem. 87: 4025 (1983).
5. Weiner, J. H., “Statistical Mechanics of Elasticity,” Wiley, New York, 1983, p. 31.
6. Nakagawa, S., in “Handbook of Physical and Mechanical Testing of Paper and Paperboard, Vol.2,” Mark, R. E., Ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1984, pp. 245255.
7. Kittel, C., “Introduction to Solid State Physics-4th Ed.,” Wiley, New York, 1971, p. 142.
8. Saada, A. S., “Elasticity,” Pergamon, New York, 1974, p. 200.
9. Leadbetter, A. J., Proc. Roy. Soc. A287: 403 (1965).
10. Pearson, C. F., Halleck, P. M., Mcguire, P. L., Hermes, R., and Mathews, M., J. Phys. Chem. 87: 4180 (1983).
11. Green, C., Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev. 20: 151 (1981).
12. Kubat, J., Martin-Lof, S., and Soremark, C., Svensk Papperstidn. 72: 763 (1969).
13. Jayne, B. A., in “Theory and Design of Wood and Fiber Composite Materials,” Jayne, B. A., Ed., Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, 1972, Chapter 2.
14. Baum, G. A., IPC Technical Paper Series No. 186, The Institute of Paper Chemistry, June, 1986.
15. Baum, G. A., and Bornhoeft, L. R., Tappi 62(5): 87 (1979).
16. Habeger, C. C., Mann, R. W., and Baum, G. A., Ultrasonics 17(2): 57(1979).
17. Pappano, D. A., M.S. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1984.
18. Andersson, O., Ivarsson, B., Nissan, A. H., and Steenberg, B., Proc. Tech. Sect. P.M.A. 30: 1, 43 (1949).
19. Nissan, A. H., and Batten, G. L. Jr.,, Nordic Pulp Paper Res. J. Special Issue: 8 (August 6, 1987).
20. Mase, G. E., “Continuum Mechanics,” McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970, Chapter 9.
21. Skowronski, J. and Robertson, A. A., J. Pulp Paper Sci. 11 (1): J21 (1985).

The Differences Between Sonically and Mechanically Determined Elastic Moduli of Paper

  • George L. Batten (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed