Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Development of Thermally Stable Indium-Based Ohmic Contacts to N-Type GaAs

  • Masanori Murakami (a1), H. J. Kim (a1), W. H. Price (a1), M. Norcott (a1) and Y. C. Shih (a1)...

Abstract

Development of low resistance ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs which withstand high temperature cycles without degrading their electrical properties is crucial for fabrication of high performance GaAs integrated circuits. Prior to our work, indium-based ohmic contact materials were not attractive for actual devices, because the contacts provided resistances higher than those of the widely used AuNiGe contacts, were thermally unstable after contact formation, and had rough surface morphology. Recently, based on analysis of the interfacial microstructure of these contacts, several thermally stable, low resistance In-based ohmic contacts to n-type GaAs have been developed in our laboratories using a standard evaporation and lift-off technique and annealing by a rapid thermal annealing method. The present paper points out the reasons for the poor electrical properties and thermal stability of the “traditional” In-based ohmic contacts, and reviews the recent progress.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Kwok, S. P., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4, 1383 (1986)
2. Yokoyama, N., Mimura, T., Fukuta, M., and Ishikawa, H., ISSCC Tech. p.218 (1981).
3. Uchitomi, N., Nagaoka, M., Shimada, K., Mizoguchi, T., and Toyoda, N., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4, 1392 (1986).
4. Sze, S. M., “Physics of Semiconductor Devices”, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (1981).
5. Braslau, N., Gunn, J. B., and Staples, J. L., Solid-State Electron. 10, 179 (1983).
6. Magerlein, J. H., Webb, D. J., Callegari, A., Feder, J. D., Fryxell, T., Guthrie, H. C., Hoh, P. D., Mitchell, J. W., Pomerene, A. T. S., Scontras, S., Spiers, G. D., and Greiner, J. H., J. Appl. Phys. 61, 3080 (1987).
7. Murakami, M., Childs, K. D., Baker, J. M., and Callegari, A., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4, 903 (1986).
8. Shih, Y. C., Murakami, M., Wilkie, E. L., and Callegari, A., J. Appl. Phys. 62, 582 (1987).
9. Hakki, B.W. and Knight, S., IEEE Trans. on Elect. Dev. ED–13, 94 (1966).
10. Knight, S. and Paola, C. R., “Ohmic Contacts to Semiconductors”, ed. Schwartz, B., Princeton, NJ, Electrochem. Soc. p. 102 (1969).
11. Klohn, K. L. and Wandinger, L., J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 507 (1969).
12. Wronski, C. R., RCA Review 30, 314 (1969).
13. Basterfield, J., Josh, M. J., and Burgess, M. R., Acta Electronica 15, 83 (1972).
14. Harrison, H. B. and Williams, J. S., “Laser and Electron Processing of Materials”, Eds. White, C. W. and Peercy, P. S., Academic Press, New York, p.481 (1980).
15. Lakhani, A. A., J. Appl. Phys. 56, 1888 (1984).
16. Otsuki, T., Aoki, H., Takagi, H., and Kano, G., J. Appl. Phys. 63, 2011 (1988).
17. Matino, H. and Tokunaga, M., J. of Electrochem. Soc. 116, 709 (1969).
18. Jung, G., Electron Technol. (Poland) 8, 63 (1975).
19. Cox, H. and Strack, H., Solid-state Elect. 10, 1213 (1967).
20. Hasty, T. E., Stratton, R., and Jones, E. L., J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4623 (1968).
21. Cox, R. H. and Hasty, T. E., “Ohmic Contacts to Semiconductors”, ed. Schwartz, B., Princeton, NJ, Electrochem. Soc. p. 88 (1969).
22. Drobny, V., Elektrotech. Cas. (Czechoslovakia) 25, 399 (1974).
23. Sebestyen, T., Hartnagel, H. L., and Herron, L. H., Electron Lett. 10, 372 (1974).
24. Sebestyen, T., Hartnagel, H. L., and Herron, L. H., IEEE Tran. on Elect. Dev., ED–22, 1073 (1975).
25. Weiss, B. L. and Hartnagel, H. L., Electron. Lett. 11, 263 (1975).
26. Hartnagel, H., Tomizawa, K., Herron, L. H., and Weiss, B. L., Thin Solid Films 36, 393 (1976).
27. McGuire, G. E., Wisseman, W. R., Ragle, R. D., and Tregilgas, J. H., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 141 (1979).
28. Christou, A., Solid-state Electronics 22, 141 (1979).
29. Mojzes, I., Sebestyen, T., Barna, P. B., Gergely, G., and Szigcthy, D., Thin Solid Films 61, 27 (1979).
30. Sebestyen, T., Mojzes, I., and Szigethy, D., Electron. Lett. 16, 504 (1980).
31. Paola, C. R., Solid-state Electronics 8, 1189 (1970).
32. Handu, V. K. and Tyagi, M. S., J. Inst. Telecom. Eng. New Delhi 18, 527 (1972).
33. Rideout, V. L., Solid-State Electronics 18, 541 (1975).
34. Kulkarni, A. K. and Blankinship, T. J., Thin Solid Films 96, 285 (1982).
35. Yee, W. and Naseem, H. A., Proc. of 38th Electronics Components Conf. p.614(1988).
36. Chino, K. and Wada, Y., Japan J. Appl. Phys. 16, 1823 (1977).
37. Loveluck, J. E., Rackham, G. M., and Steeds, J. W., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 36, 297 (1977).
38. Eckhardt, G., “Laser and Electron Processing of Materials”, Eds. White, C. W. and Peercy, P. S., Academic Press, New York, p.466 (1980).
39. Steeds, J. W., Rackham, G. M., and Merton-Lyn, D., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 60, 387 (1981).
40. Rackham, G. M. and Steeds, J. W., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 60, 397 (1981).
41. Grovenor, C. R. M., Thin Solid Films 104, 409 (1983).
42. Healy, M. F. and Mattauch, R. J., IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED–23, 68 (1976).
43. Gol'dberg, Yu. A. and Tsarenkov, B.V., Soviet Physics-Semicon. 3, 1447 (1970).
44. Marvin, D. C., Ives, N. A., and Leung, M. S., J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2659 (1985).
45. Allen, L., Hung, L. S., Kavanagh, K. L., Phillips, J. R., Yu, A. J., and Mayer, J. W., Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 326 (1987).
46. Murakami, M., Price, W. H., Shih, Y. C., Childs, K. D., Furman, B. K. and Tiwari, S., J. Appl. Phys. 62, 3288 (1987).
47. Murakami, M., Price, W. H., Shih, Y. C., Braslau, N., Childs, K. D., and Parks, C. C., J. Appl. Phys. 62, 3295 (1987).
48. Murakami, M., Shih, Y. C., Price, W. H., and Wilkie, E. L., J. Appl. Phys. 64, 1974 (1988).
49. Murakami, M., Shih, Y. C., Braslau, N., Price, W. H., Childs, K. D. and Parks, C. C., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 91, 55 (1988).
50. Murakami, M. and Price, W. H., Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 664 (1987).
51. Murakami, M., Price, W. H., Greiner, J. H., and Feder, J. D., J. Appl. Phys. (1989) (in press).
52. Berger, H. H., Solid-State Electron. 15, 145 (1972).
53. Kim, H. J., Murakami, M., Norcott, M., and Price, W. H., unpublished.
54. Murakami, M., Shih, Y. C., Kim, H. J. and Price, W. H., Proc. of the 20th Int. Conf. Sol. Stat. Dev. Mat. D–2–3, 283 (1988).
55. Antypas, G.A., J. Electrochem. Soc. 117, 1393 (1970).
56. Darken, L. S., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME, 239, 80 (1967).
57. Ding, J., Washburn, J., Sands, T., and Keramidas, V. G., Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 818 (1986).
58. Shih, Y. C., Murakami, M., and Price, W. H., J. Appl. Phys. (1989) (in press).
59. Kajiyama, K., Mizushima, Y. and Sakata, S., Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 458 (1973).
60. Woodall, J. M., Freeouf, J. L., Pettit, G. D., Jackson, T. N., and Kirchner, P., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 626 (1981).
61. Marlow, G. S. and Das, M. B., Solid-State Electron. 25, 91 (1982).
62. Hansen, M. and Andeko, K., “Constitution of Binary Alloys”, McGraw-Hill, New York (1958).

Development of Thermally Stable Indium-Based Ohmic Contacts to N-Type GaAs

  • Masanori Murakami (a1), H. J. Kim (a1), W. H. Price (a1), M. Norcott (a1) and Y. C. Shih (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed