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Deposition of Bronze Microwires on Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Electrodes

  • Corina Grodek (a1), Lori A. Lepak (a1), Anirudha V. Sumant (a2), Ralu Divan (a2), Orlando Auciello (a3), Daniel Rosenmann (a2), Suzanne Miller (a2), Ephriam Daniels (a1) and Michael P. Zach (a1)...

Abstract

As technology advances, ever smaller wires are needed for devices, for applications in electronics, medicine, and clean energy. Many of these applications will require the precise control of not only wire shapes and diameters, but alloy compositions as well. The recently developed technique of Electroplate-and-Lift (E&L) Lithography developed by our group has demonstrated the capability of quickly and easily producing patterned micro- and nanowires of a large variety of electrodeposited materials. Here we report the first E&L- based synthesis of microwires with controlled alloy compositions, in the model system of bronze.

Wires of several different compositions, ranging from 100% copper to 100% tin, were deposited on patterned ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)TM templates, by varying the relative concentrations of copper and tin salts in the plating solution. All wires were deposited at 55oC, -1.0 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Wire morphology and elemental composition was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). For some alloy compositions, wires were interrupted at irregular intervals by nodules. All alloy wires were highly enriched in copper relative to the solution composition.

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References

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[1] Seley, D.B., Dissing, D.A., Sumant, A.V., Divan, R., Miller, S., Auciello, O., Lepak, L.A., Terrell, E.A., Shogren, T.J., Fahrner, D.A., Hamilton, J.P., and Zach, M.P., ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 3, 925930 (2011).
[2] Menke, E. J., Brown, M. A., Li, Q., Hemminger, J. C., and Penner, R. M., Langmuir 22(25), 1056410574 (2006).
[3] Zach, M., Electroplate and Lift Lithography: A New Technique for Nanomanufacturing, Nickel Wires as a Case Study, in Proceedings of 2011 NSF Engineering Research and Innovation Conference, Atlanta, Georgia.
[4] Jones, D., Lepak, L. A., Sumant, A. V., Divan, R., Auciello, O., Seley, D. B., Dissing, D. A., Miller, S., Rosenmann, D., Daniels, E., Gervais, R., and Zach, M. P.. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Fall Meeting Boston, MA 2011, submitted.
[5] Surme, Y., Gurten, A.A., Bayol, E., and Ersoy, E.. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 485, 98103 (2009). [All Cu/Sn electrolyte solutions except the 87.8% Sn /12.2% Cu solution were prepared exactly as described in their Tables 1 and 2. The 87.8% Sn /12.2% Cu solution was prepared by mixing 63.5% Sn /36.5% Cu solution and 100% Sn solution in a 1:2 volumetric ratio. The 97% Sn / 3% Cu solution was prepared by mixing the 12% solution with the 100% Sn solution.]

Keywords

Deposition of Bronze Microwires on Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (UNCD) Electrodes

  • Corina Grodek (a1), Lori A. Lepak (a1), Anirudha V. Sumant (a2), Ralu Divan (a2), Orlando Auciello (a3), Daniel Rosenmann (a2), Suzanne Miller (a2), Ephriam Daniels (a1) and Michael P. Zach (a1)...

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