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Defects in KTiOPO4

  • P. A. Morris (a1), M. K. Crawford (a1), A. Ferretti (a1), R. H. French (a1), M. G. Roelofs (a1), J. D. Bierlein (a1), J. B. Brown (a1), G. M. Loiacono (a2) and G. Gashurov (a3)...

Abstract

KTiOPO4 (KTP) is a nonlinear optical crystal presently used for second harmonic generation and electro-optic applications. The properties (ionic conductivity and damage susceptibility) of KTP crystals can vary depending on the specific technique and conditions used for growth. Consistent defect mechanisms have been determined to explain the observed AC conductivity and damage results of KTP grown by the flux and high and low temperature hydrothermal techniques. The presence of nonstoichiometry on the K and O sublattices in KTP, increasing in magnitude with temperature, is proposed. Using these defect mechanisms, the predominant defects compensating for the formation of vacant potassium sites (VK's) in flux and hydrothermal materials are vacant oxygen sites (VO's) and OH's, respectively. The presence of a more varied distribution of OH sites at room temperature in high temperature hydrothermal material with higher AC conductivity indicates the importance of specific OH sites in the lattice that may enhance the mobility of ionic carriers. The correlation of higher AC conductivity to increased average current and damage in electric field treated KTP is explained on the basis of the proposed compensating defects (VO 's and OH 's) which set the [VK] and [Ti3+]. The similarity of the linear optical properties of KTP grown by the various techniques is confirmed by the insensitivity of the absorption edge to the nonstoichiometry or defects present.

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