Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Chemical Durability of Copper Canisters Under Crystalline Bedrock Repository Conditions

  • Rolf Sjöblom (a1), Hans-Peter Hermansson (a2) and Örjan Amcoff (a3)

Abstract

In the Swedish waste management programme, the copper canister is expected to provide containment of the radionuclides for a very long time, perhaps millions of years. The purpose of the present paper, is to analyse prerequisites for assessments of corrosion lifetimes for copper canisters.

The analysis is based on compilations of literature from the following areas: chemical literature on copper and copper corrosion, mineralogical literature with emphasis on the stability of copper in near surface environments, and chemical and mineralogical literature with emphasis on the stabilities and thermodynamics of species and phases that may exist in a repository environment.

Three main types of situations are identified: (1) under oxidizing and low chloride conditions, passivating oxide type of layers may form on the copper surface; (2) under oxidizing and high chloride conditions, the species formed may all be dissolved; and (3) under reducing conditions, non-passivating sulfide type layers may form on the copper surface.

Considerable variability and uncertainty exists regarding the chemical environment for the canister, especially in certain scenarios. Thus, the mechanisms for corrosion can be expected to differ greatly for different situations. The lifetime of a thick-walled copper canister subjected to general corrosion appears to be long for most reasonable chemistries. (It is assumed that the canister has no defects from manufacturing and that the bentonite buffer is intact). Localized corrosion may appear for types (1) and (3) above but the mechanisms are widely different in character. The penetration caused by localized corrosion can be expected to be very sensitive to details in the chemistry.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. RD&D Programme 92, Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste. Programme for research, development and demonstration and other measures. SKB, Stockholm, September 1992. The reference also includes background reports on siting, detailed R&D Programme and Åspö Hard Rock Laboratory.
2. SKI’s Evaluation of SKB’s RD&D Programme 92, Summary and conclusions. SKI Technical Report 93:24, Stockholm, May 1993. The reference also includes the review report, SKI Technical Report 93:30, Stockholm, June 1993
3. Sjöblom, R., Andersson, J. and Norrby, S.. The review of the Swedish R&D Programme 92 for handling and final disposal of nuclear waste. Safewaste 93. International Conference on Safe Waste Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste. Avignon, France, June 1418, 1993.
4. Sjöblom, R., Dverstorp, B. and Wingefors, S.. Objectives and limitations of scientific studies with reference to the Swedish RD&D Programme 1992 for handling and disposal of nuclear waste. Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XVII, edited by Barkatt, A. and Konynenburg, R. A., Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1994, pp. 209&216.
5. Sjöblom, R.. Corrosion aspects of copper in a crystalline bedrock environment - with regard to life prediction of a container in a nuclear waste repository. Application of Accelerated Corrosion Tests to Service Life Prediction of Materials. ASTM STP 1194, Cragnolino, Gustavo, and Sridhar, Narasi, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1993.
6. The SKI performance assessment project SITE 94. Main report. SKI Report, in preparation.
7. Möller, K.. Copper corrosion in pure oxygen-free water (in Swedish), SKI Technical Report, in print.
8. Amcoff, Ö. and Holényi, K.. Stability of metallic copper in the near surface environment. SKN Report 57, Stockholm, March 1992. ISBN 91–38–12740–7.
9. Amcoff, Ö. and Holényi, K.. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a future repository site environment. SKI Technical Report, in print.
10. Engman, U. and Hermansson, H-P. Corrosion of copper materials for encapsulation of radioactive waste - a literature study (in Swedish). SKI Report 94–6, Stockholm April 1994.
11. Beverskog, B.. Copper species in the S - CI - C environment (in Swedish). SKI Technical Report, to be published.
12. Beverskog, B.. Corrosion behaviour of the copper - iron canister (in Swedish). SKI Technical Report, to be published.
13. Worgan, K. J. and Apted, M. J.. CAMEO: A model of mass-transport limited general corrosion of copper canisters under simulated repository conditions. SKI Technical Report, in print.
14. Worgan, K. J., Apted, M. J. and Sjöblom, R.. Performance analysis of copper canister corrosion under oxidizing or reducing conditions. Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XVIII. edited by Ewing, R.C. and Murakami, T., Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, in press.
15. Wersin, P., Spahiu, K and Bruno, J. Time evolution of dissolved oxygen and redox conditions in a HLW repository. SKB Technical Report 94–02, Stockholm, February 1994.
16. Pedersen, K.. The deep subterranean biosphere. Earth-Science Reviews, 34, 243 (1993).
17. Sato, M. Persistency-field Eh-pH diagrams for sulfides and their application to supergens oxidation and enrichment of sulfide ore bodies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56, 3133 (1992).
18. Berger, R., Inst, of Chemistry, University of Uppsala, Sweden. Private communication.
19. Pourbaix, M.. Significance of Protection Potential in Pitting and Intergranular Corrosion. Corrosion 26(10), 431(1970).
20. King, F., LeNeveu, D.M. and Jobe, D. J.. Modelling the effects of evolving redox conditions on the corrosion of copper containers. Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XVII. edited by Barkatt, A. and Konynenburg, R. A., Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1994, pp. 901908.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Chemical Durability of Copper Canisters Under Crystalline Bedrock Repository Conditions

  • Rolf Sjöblom (a1), Hans-Peter Hermansson (a2) and Örjan Amcoff (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.